The Hindu PDF 8 November 2023 Analysis

The Hindu PDF 8 November 2023 Newspaper is considered an important source of news and information for UPSC (Union Public Service Commission) aspirants in India. This The Hindu Epaper PDF newspaper covers a wide range of topics that are relevant to the UPSC exam, including politics, economics, international relations, governance, and social issues.

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The Hindu PDF Analysis 8 November 2023 for UPSC

Closer together: Page 8

  • India and Bhutan focus on infrastructure and connectivity in talks between PM Narendra Modi and Bhutan’s King.
  • Plans include the Kokrajhar-Gelephu rail link, Bhutan-West Bengal rail link, and facilitating Bhutan-Bangladesh trade via rail links.
  • These initiatives aim to change the region’s development story, benefiting West Bengal, northeast India, Bhutan’s districts, and Northern Bangladesh.
  • Bhutan’s economy heavily relies on hydropower and tourism, impacted by COVID-19 and global warming concerns.
  • Bhutan plans a Special Economic Zone at its southern border with Assam and a Gelephu airport for growth and investment.
  • Bangladesh’s Preferential Trade Agreement with Bhutan in 2020 can boost Bhutanese exports and expand markets for India and Bangladesh.
  • India’s “energy exchange” with Bhutan and Nepal will stimulate intra-regional growth and development.
  • Efficient execution is crucial for success, especially in light of trade challenges with Pakistan and Myanmar.
  • These initiatives promote regional connectivity, markets, and energy links, countering geopolitical conflicts and anti-globalization trends.
  • Such cooperation enhances security and prosperity, particularly benefiting Bhutan, India’s trusted regional partner.

The problem with the ’70 hours a week’ line: Page 8

  • Infosys co-founder N.R. Narayana Murthy’s statement advocating a 70-hour workweek to make India competitive has sparked controversy.
  • Contrary to his claim, advanced countries like Germany and Japan have seen a continuous decline in working hours over the years.
  • Narayana Murthy wrongly places the burden of productivity on workers when the key factor is investment in innovation.
  • A 70-hour workweek proposal violates international labor standards, including the ILO’s Decent Work Agenda and Fundamental Conventions.
  • India’s low investment in research and development (GERD) as a percentage of GDP hinders innovation and productivity.
  • India lags behind in private sector contributions to R&D compared to more innovative economies like Japan, Korea, and the United States.
  • Adherence to International Labor Standards is increasingly important in global trade, with advanced countries including it in free trade agreements.
  • The Indo-Pacific Economic Framework for Prosperity (IPEF) emphasizes labor rights and decent working conditions, aligning with the ILS.
  • Supply chain regulations in the EU and other countries require companies to address human rights and labor rights violations in their supply chains.
  • India Inc. should be cautious about supporting measures that weaken labor rights, given the global trend toward stricter enforcement of these standards.

A verdict that hampers international law obligations: Page 8

  • The recent Supreme Court judgment in the Assessing Officer Circle (International Taxation) New Delhi vs M/s Nestle SA case has implications for foreign investors in India.
  • The case revolved around the interpretation of the most favored nation (MFN) clause in tax treaties and Double Taxation Avoidance Agreements (DTAAs).
  • India’s DTAAs with countries like the Netherlands, France, and Switzerland required a 10% withholding tax, and they also contained MFN provisions.
  • The Supreme Court ruled that benefits extended to countries that later became members of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) do not apply to the India-Netherlands DTAA.
  • This ruling could impose a tax burden of ₹11,000 crore on foreign investors and may reopen past cases.
  • The Supreme Court’s interpretation advocated the doctrine of dualism, where international law is not enforceable domestically without specific enabling legislation.
  • This approach deviates from the monist tradition, which incorporates international law into the domestic legal regime without explicit incorporation, as long as it doesn’t contradict domestic law.
  • The Court’s interpretation is seen as a setback to the progressive judicial journey that had previously considered international law seriously in cases like Vishakha.
  • The decision allows the executive to avoid international law obligations by not issuing relevant notifications domestically, potentially leading to violations of international law and international claims.
  • This judgment highlights the finality of the Supreme Court but also its fallibility in interpretation.

In troubled waters in Qatar: Page 9

  • Indian Navy veterans in Qatar sentenced to death for alleged espionage.
  • The case involves eight naval officials, including three captains, four commanders, and a sailor, employed with Dahra Global Technologies and Consultancy Services.
  • The company provided training and support services to the Qatari Navy.
  • Speculations regarding the case, including an alleged disclosure of submarine specifications to Israel, have been disputed.
  • Some Indian media outlets have presented outlandish speculations, including political biases and prejudices.
  • Pakistani involvement has been suggested in some speculations, but no concrete evidence has been provided.
  • Qatar has close ties with the U.S., other Western powers, Iran, and Turkey, and plays a significant role in regional diplomacy.
  • Qatar’s leadership is well-informed, and its political initiatives are often low-key and behind-the-scenes.
  • The case should be viewed as a standalone security issue, and the sentences are unrelated to bilateral ties or regional politics.
  • Patience and restraint are advised in media coverage, while behind-the-scenes diplomatic engagement is essential to resolve the situation.
  • Maintaining a focus on long-standing, mutually beneficial ties with Qatar is emphasized.

The massive displacement in Congo: Page 10

  • Conflict in DRC rooted in 1990s civil wars and Rwandan genocide.
  • Ongoing insurgency by 120+ rebel groups in eastern DRC.
  • M23 rebel group’s resurgence in November 2021, leading to violence.
  • Failed ceasefire between DRC and Rwanda in November 2022.
  • East African Force and UN peacekeeping mission unsuccessful.
  • Prominent rebel groups: ADF and CODECO.
  • Ethnic tensions between Hutus and Tutsis.
  • Political uncertainty and lack of inclusive governance.
  • Regional tensions with Rwanda, Uganda, and Burundi.
  • Humanitarian crisis with over 1.1 million people in need of food support.
  • Weak international response and funding challenges.

How are the MiG-21 fighter jets being phased out?: Page 10

  • MiG-21 fighter jets of the No. 4 squadron ‘OORIALS’ of the Indian Air Force (IAF) retired in October 2023.
  • Squadron re-equipped with Sukhoi-30 MKI aircraft.
  • MiG-21 was the IAF’s first supersonic fighter, in service since 1963.
  • Played a significant role in major conflicts, including Indo-Pak conflicts.
  • IAF currently at 31 fighter squadrons, short of the sanctioned strength of 42 squadrons.
  • Two MiG-21 squadrons with upgraded Bison variants (No. 3 ‘Cobras’ and No. 23 ‘Panthers’) to be phased out by 2025.
  • Replacement planned with the indigenous Light Combat Aircraft (LCA)-Mk1A.
  • IAF had 24 fighter squadrons and four training units equipped with MiG-21.
  • MiG-21 fleet saw over 400 accidents and around 200 pilot casualties.
  • MiG-21 phase-out delayed due to delays in newer inductions like LCA Tejas.
  • MiG Replacement:
  • IAF has inducted LCA Tejas and Rafale fighter jets in recent years.
  • Contract signed for 83 LCA Mk1A from HAL, deliveries starting in early 2024.
  • Larger LCA-Mk2 and Advanced Medium Combat Aircraft (AMCA) in development.
  • Looking to procure an additional 97 LCA-Mk1A, making a total of 180 Mk1A variants.

Understanding the fundamentals of how electricity is transmitted: Page 11

  • Electric power transmission is essential for development in modern nations like India.
  • Electricity transmission involves three components: generation, transmission, and distribution.
  • Transformers increase voltage and reduce current for efficient transmission.
  • Resistance in transmission cables leads to energy loss, which can be controlled by adjusting cable thickness.
  • Longer transmission distances result in lower transmission cost.
  • Alternating current (AC) is commonly used for power transmission due to its efficiency.
  • In a three-phase AC circuit, there are three wires with different phases.
  • Power is transmitted through transmission towers, insulated from surges and grounded.
  • Substations play various roles in transforming and distributing power.
  • National grids integrate power production, storage, and distribution to meet varying demand.
  • Wide-area synchronous grids, like India’s national grid, result in lower power costs but require safeguards against failures.

Aditya-Ll captures first glimpse of solar flares: Page 14

  • Aditya-L1 spacecraft with the HEL1OS payload captured the first glimpse of solar flares.
  • Aditya-L1 is India’s first space-based mission to study the sun, currently en route to the sun-earth L1 point.
  • On October 29, HEL1OS recorded the impulsive phase of solar flares.
  • Data from HEL1OS aligns with X-ray light curves from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s satellites.

7.5 million new cases of TB in 2022, shows WHO Global report: Page 14

  • WHO Global TB Report for 2022 shows a major recovery in TB diagnosis and treatment after COVID-related disruptions.
  • TB remains the world’s second leading cause of death from a single infectious agent.
  • Global TB targets have been missed or remain off track, with a net reduction of 8.7% from 2015 to 2022.
  • 7.5 million new TB cases were reported in 2022, the highest number since monitoring began in 1995.
  • India, Indonesia, and the Philippines collectively accounted for nearly 60% of the reduction in new TB cases in 2020-2021.
  • TB caused an estimated 1.30 million deaths in 2022, nearly back to the 2019 level.
  • COVID-related disruptions resulted in almost half a million excess TB deaths in the years 2020-2022.

Where do domesticated silkworm cocoons get their wild colours from?: SCIENCE Page II

  • Silk is drawn from cocoons of the domesticated silk moth (Bombyx mori), which was domesticated from the wild moth (Bombyx mandarina) over 5,000 years ago in China.
  • Domesticated silkworms rely on human care for survival and reproduction, have lost the ability to fly, and no longer exhibit caterpillar and adult-stage pigmentation.
  • “Wild” silks, such as muga, tasar, and eri silks, come from other moth species that are relatively independent of human care and forage on various trees.
  • The different colors of domesticated silk moth cocoons arise from mutations in genes responsible for the uptake, transport, and modification of carotenoids and flavonoids.
  • Researchers have studied how combinations of mutations in specific genes give rise to different cocoon colors.
  • Hybrid silk moths have been created, allowing scientists to study the genetic differences between domesticated and ancestral silkworms.
  • These studies aim to understand the molecular basis of silk moth domestication, gene by gene, similar to how other domesticated species like rice, mangoes, and dogs have been studied.

Source: The Hindu Epaper

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