The Hindu PDF 9 November 2023 Analysis

The Hindu PDF 9 November 2023 Newspaper is considered an important source of news and information for UPSC (Union Public Service Commission) aspirants in India. This The Hindu Epaper PDF newspaper covers a wide range of topics that are relevant to the UPSC exam, including politics, economics, international relations, governance, and social issues.

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The Hindu PDF Analysis 9 November 2023 for UPSC

G-7 meet appeals for humanitarian pauses in Gaza: Page 1

  • G-7 Foreign Ministers call for humanitarian pauses in Israel-Hamas war.
  • Purpose is to allow aid, release hostages, and return to a broader peace process.
  • Emphasize Israel’s right to defend itself while protecting civilians and adhering to international humanitarian law.
  • Commit to preparing sustainable long-term solutions for Gaza.
  • Support humanitarian pauses and corridors for assistance, civilian movement, and hostage release.
  • G-7 endorses a two-state solution as the path to a just and lasting peace.
  • Notable conflict initiated by an attack from Palestinian militant group Hamas in October.
  • High casualties in Gaza, with a significant proportion being children.
  • The G-7 stresses unity on the need for humanitarian pauses.
  • Reiterated G-7 support for Ukraine, highlighted engagement with China, and condemned North Korea’s actions.
  • The G-7 comprises seven major nations along with the European Union.
  • Israel’s position on Gaza’s long-term plans remains uncertain.
  • Discussions include international coalition, Palestinian-led administration, and U.N. supervision for Gaza’s future.

Kerala forms Organic Farming Mission to boost agriculture: Page 6

  • Kerala government establishes Organic Farming Mission.
  • Mission goal: Promote sustainable organic and climate-smart farming.
  • Target: Expand organic farming to 5,000 hectares in the next five years.
  • Annual target: 1,000 hectares.
  • Mandate for Agriculture Department farms: Allocate at least 10% of the area for organic farming.
  • Selected beneficiaries/farms must practice organic farming for a minimum of five years.
  • Mission to work on certification, branding, and marketing of organic agricultural products.
  • Implementing an organic farming protocol in line with national and international standards.
  • Emphasis on value addition of organic products.

Taiwan, a Malacca blockade and India’s options: Page 8

  • China’s actions in the Taiwan Strait prompt questions about India’s potential involvement in the Strait of Malacca or Andaman Sea in a conflict between the United States and China.
  • India’s options face multiple constraints:
  • Distant blockades can be challenged under international law.
  • Trade passing through the Strait of Malacca involves Japan, South Korea, and India, not just China.
  • The long Strait of Malacca’s sovereignty involves other nations that wouldn’t support a naval blockade.
  • Complex identification of commercial shipping and potential detours through other straits.
  • China’s onshore and floating Strategic Petroleum Reserves reduce vulnerability.
  • Naval blockade or unilateral action could lead to war and is unlikely to gain regional support.
  • Historical examples: Naval blockades led to conflagrations in the First and Second World Wars.
  • Ongoing tensions in the Strait of Hormuz show interdiction of commercial shipping can escalate quickly.
  • The question remains whether India’s strategic partners, particularly the U.S., would support interdiction of Chinese vessels in a bilateral conflict with China.
  • India’s primary role in a U.S.-China conflict over Taiwan may involve defending its territorial interests and sea lines of communication in the Indian Ocean.
  • India traditionally faces China’s military threats on its own but is strengthening its partnership with the U.S.
  • The U.S. sees India as a regional stabilizing force in the Indo-Pacific, contributing to multi-polarity.

Move towards e-FIR, but with caution: Page 9

  • Law Commission of India’s recommendation on e-FIR registration for cognisable offenses:
  • E-FIR allowed when the accused is unknown.
  • Preliminary e-FIR registration possible for offenses with up to three years of punishment under IPC and other laws.
  • Verification of complainant through mobile number with OTP and requirement of valid ID proof, such as Aadhaar.
  • Name of the suspect secured until e-FIR is signed by the complainant; if not signed within the prescribed time, information deleted within two weeks.
  • E-FIR is not an automatically registered FIR but involves electronic means to obtain the complaint, with physical signature required within three days.
  • Benefits of e-FIR: Almost free registration of crime and prevention of changing complaint contents.
  • Human intervention in certain cases is crucial, where immediate actions like medical examination or visit to the crime scene are essential.
  • Law Commission did not discuss the use of ‘e-authentication technique or digital signature’ for signing complaints, which could enhance the e-FIR process.
  • Suggestion to mandate the use of e-authentication technique for complainant verification and immediate e-FIR registration.

Importance of ‘loss and damage’ funds: Page 10

  • Loss and Damage (L&D) fund established at COP 27 in November 2022.
  • Transitional Committee (TC) created to operationalize the fund.
  • Four TC meetings held, but no clear recommendations.
  • TC5 meeting in Abu Dhabi resulted in hosting the fund at the World Bank for four years.
  • Wealthy nations, particularly the U.S., non-committal about being primary donors, weakening the fund.
  • Lack of trust between affluent and emerging economies regarding historical responsibilities.
  • Weakening of the L&D fund threatens climate justice and exacerbates suffering in vulnerable communities.
  • Economic consequences and environmental degradation due to inadequate L&D funds.
  • Climate-change-induced instability can have security implications.
  • Balancing adaptation and L&D in climate resilience efforts is essential for global climate action.

Brazil will give continuity to India’s Presidency of G-20, says Ambassador: Page 12

  • India’s G-20 Presidency concluding; Prime Minister Modi to host Voice of Global South Summit (November 17) and G-20 Virtual Summit (November 22).
  • Brazil to host G-20 in 2024 and COP30 Climate Change Summit in 2025.
  • Brazil aims to continue India’s focus on the Global South and developing world.
  • Brazilian President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva confirmed attendance at both upcoming summits.
  • The Brazilian G-20 presidency to emphasize fighting hunger and poverty, sustainable development in the climate change debate, and multilateral system reform.
  • Similar goals and targets as India, especially as part of BRICS, IBSA, and the G-4 grouping.
  • Brazil hosts IBSA, G-20 in 2024, and COP30 in 2025, and seeks cooperation with partners like India, South Africa, and Indonesia.
  • India’s role in forging a breakthrough joint statement during the G-20 Summit in Delhi in September.
  • Focus on implementing agreements and declarations from the Voice of Global South Summit in January 2023 and G-20 Summit in September.
  • Israel-Gaza conflict likely to be discussed during the upcoming G-20 summit.
  • Emphasis on fostering global cooperation in development and welfare.

World will overshoot 2030 fossil fuel limit by twice over: report: Page 14

  • Governments planning to produce twice as much fossil fuel in 2030 than needed to limit warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius.
  • The forecast indicates a 69% increase in fossil fuel production over what’s consistent with 2 degrees Celsius warming.
  • 151 governments pledged Net-Zero emissions from 2050-2070, but forecasts contradict this.
  • Despite promises in the 2015 Paris Agreement, coal, oil, and gas production expected to increase until 2030 and beyond.
  • A widening fossil fuel production gap is anticipated.
  • Upcoming COP Summit in Dubai to address fossil fuel emissions, renewable energy adoption, and support for vulnerable countries.
  • The Production Gap Report by SEI, Climate Analytics, E3G, IISD, and UNEP assesses planned and projected fossil fuel production against the Paris Agreement’s temperature goal.
  • Fossil gas promoted as a “transition” fuel, but no clear plans for transitioning away from it.

U.S. to invest $553 mn. in Adani’s Sri Lanka port terminal project: Page 16

  • U.S. International Development Finance Corporation (DFC) to invest $553 million in Adani Ports-led container terminal project in Colombo, Sri Lanka.
  • The DFC’s investment aims to support economic growth and strengthen strategic positions of partners.
  • The West Container Terminal project is designed to serve growing economies in the region, leveraging Sri Lanka’s strategic location along major shipping routes.
  • Adani Ports, in collaboration with Sri Lanka Ports Authority and John Keells Holdings, signed a $700-million deal in September 2021 to jointly develop the terminal.
  • This project emerged after the former Sri Lankan President ousted India and Japan from the East Container Terminal project, offering the West Terminal as a compromise.
  • The project is executed by a consortium, Colombo West International Terminal Pvt. Ltd., with Adani Ports holding a 51% stake.
  • The DFC’s decision to invest in the Adani Group project comes despite regulatory probes and allegations of accounting fraud and stock price manipulation made by Hindenburg Research.
  • U.S. officials emphasize their commitment to high standards, transparency, due diligence, anti-corruption, and sustainability.
  • The project also involves the Government of Sri Lanka in its execution.

‘RBI may cut rates in 2024-25 if food inflation is tamed’: Page 16

  • RBI may cut rates in 2024-25, contingent on food inflation and monsoon conditions.
  • S&P Global Ratings predicts India’s GDP growth: 6% this year, 6.9% next two years.
  • India’s economic growth shines in the Asia-Pacific region.
  • High Indian government bond yields put pressure on funding large debt stock.
  • Monetary policy will be a key theme in 2024, influenced by U.S. interest rates.
  • Controlled inflation allows room for the central bank to consider normalizing monetary policy.
  • Food inflation is a significant factor; normal monsoons may lead to lower interest rates.
  • Extension of the free food grain scheme and concerns over fiscal health may not have a major medium-term impact.

Trouble with India’s guidelines on genetically modified insects: SCIENCE Page II

  • Guidelines issued by the Department of Biotechnology (DBT) in April 2023 pertain to genetically engineered insects.
  • Issues with these guidelines:
  • Lack of clarity regarding the purposes for which genetically engineered (GE) insects may be approved in India.
  • Guidelines are procedural but do not align with the broader commitment to contributing to the bioeconomy.
  • Guidelines apply to research, not confined trials or deployment.
  • Uncertainty in how GE insects will be approved and deployed.
  • Guidelines define GE insects by risk group, but the definition of ‘beneficial’ is unclear.
  • Ambiguity in other gene-editing guidelines, creating confusion and hindering research progress.
  • Guidelines do not sufficiently account for more dangerous possibilities of genetic engineering.
  • Inconsistent with the ambitions outlined in the Bioeconomy 2022 report.
  • The absence of a clear stance on research priorities hampers progress in a country with low public and private funding for biotechnology.

Source: The Hindu Epaper

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