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The Hindu PDF 6 December 2023 Analysis

The Hindu PDF GKGSCA

The Hindu PDF 6 December 2023 Newspaper is considered an important source of news and information for UPSC (Union Public Service Commission) aspirants in India. This The Hindu Epaper PDF newspaper covers a wide range of topics that are relevant to the UPSC exam, including politics, economics, international relations, governance, and social issues.

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The Hindu Epaper Analysis 6 December 2023 for UPSC

Congress announces Revanth Reddy as CM of Telangana: Page 1

  • A. Revanth Reddy named Chief Minister of Telangana by Congress leadership.
  • He will be the first Congress Chief Minister of Telangana.
  • Oath of office scheduled for Thursday.
  • Congress president Mallikarjun Kharge approves the decision based on the report from party poll observers.
  • Revanth Reddy, Congress Legislature Party (CLP) leader, won from Kodangal Assembly constituency.
  • Announcement made by All India Congress Committee general secretary K.C. Venugopal in New Delhi.
  • Feedback from Congress observers, including D.K. Shivakumar and Manikrao Thakare, influenced the decision.
  • Emphasized Revanth Reddy’s dynamic leadership and extensive campaign efforts.
  • Party’s commitment to fulfilling the aspirations of Telangana people highlighted.
  • New government’s top priority is fulfilling guarantees made to the people.
  • Team effort emphasized, involving all leaders in the process.
  • Former CLP leader Mallu Bhatti Vikramarka and Nalgonda MP N. Uttam Kumar Reddy were also aspirants for the top post.
  • Focus shifts to constituting the new Council of Ministers with a maximum of 17 Ministers, including the Chief Minister.

Michaung makes landfall in Andhra Pradesh, wreaks havoc: Page 1

  • Cyclone Michaung makes landfall in Andhra Pradesh.
  • Heavy rain and high-velocity winds with a maximum speed of 90-100 kmph reported in Bapatla town and nearby villages.
  • Uprooting of trees and electric poles leads to disruption and chaos.
  • Three casualties reported in rain-related incidents, including a collapse of a poultry unit and a tree falling on a constable.
  • Cyclone moving northwards, expected to weaken in the next few hours, but heavy rain will continue.
  • Power supply affected in many areas; restoration to take a couple of days.
  • Precautionary power shutdown before landfall.
  • Sea turns rough with high tides and gusting winds; impact on fishermen colonies but most evacuated in advance.
  • Thatched and tiled houses along the coast bear the brunt; reports of collapsed walls and roofs.
  • NDRF and SDRF teams deployed on Suryalanka beach for rescue and evacuation.
  • Cyclone likely to weaken into a cyclonic storm and further into a deep depression in the next 48 hours.
  • Intensity of rain prompts evacuation of people in low-lying areas as a precautionary measure.

Glaciers shrank 1 m a year in a decade: WMO: Page 1

  • Glaciers globally shrank by approximately 1 meter per year on average from 2011 to 2020.
  • The 2011-2020 decade, despite being the warmest recorded, saw the lowest number of deaths from extreme events.
  • Improved early warning systems, forecasting, and disaster management contributed to the decrease in casualties.
  • India benefited from improved cyclone forecasting, enhancing preparedness and evacuation measures.
  • The decade marked the first since 1950 without a single short-term event causing 10,000 deaths or more.
  • The ozone hole visibly showed signs of recovery during this decade.
  • Greenland and Antarctica lost 38% more ice from 2011 to 2020 compared to the 2001-2010 period.
  • The report mentioned the 2021 Uttarakhand rock-avalanche triggered by a breach in the Nanda Devi glacier.
  • Human-caused climate change increased the risks of extreme heat events, with heatwaves causing the highest human casualties.
  • Tropical cyclones resulted in the most economic damage.
  • Public and private climate finance nearly doubled during the decade.
  • Climate finance needs to increase at least seven times by the end of the decade to achieve climate objectives, including limiting global temperature rise to 1.5 degrees Celsius.

Global Stocktake draft calls for phasing out fossil fuels: Page 1

  • The Global Stocktake (GST) draft at COP-28 includes a clause calling for the phasing out of all fossil fuels.
  • This marks the first time such a commitment is included in the GST, emphasizing the need for an orderly and just transition away from fossil fuels.
  • The location of the summit in the United Arab Emirates, a petro state, and the ties to oil in COP leadership influenced the language in the GST.
  • Previous climate talks focused on reducing reliance on coal, but the draft now recognizes the urgency of addressing fossil fuels responsible for 80% of emissions.
  • The GST, the first since 2015, aims to assess the progress of the Paris Agreement and guide countries in updating commitments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
  • The draft also calls for tripling global renewable energy capacity by 2030 and doubling the global average annual rate of energy-efficiency improvement by 2030.
  • India did not sign the ‘energy efficiency pledge’ in Dubai, citing concerns about giving up the use of coal.
  • The draft mentions transitioning to sustainable lifestyles and patterns of consumption and production in efforts to address climate change.
  • The document, with 193 separate points over 24 pages, may face contention, and experts find it lacking a clear roadmap for implementation.

Honest reckoning: Page 8

  • Global climate discussions aim to cap the rise in temperatures at 1.5°C.
  • The current focus at the Dubai climate summit is on limiting the half-degree rise beyond 1°C.
  • Pledges to cut emissions are insufficient to achieve the goal.
  • The world needs three times more renewable energy capacity by 2030, equivalent to at least 11,000 GW.
  • The New Delhi Leaders’ Declaration at the G-20 summit emphasized the need for tripling renewable energy capacity.
  • 118 countries have endorsed the pledge, but India and China have abstained.
  • The Global Renewables and Energy Efficiency Pledge calls for the phasing down of unabated coal power, a concern for India.
  • India aims to triple its renewable energy capacity to 500 GW by 2030 but emphasizes its reliance on certain fuels, including coal.
  • Coal-fired plants contribute to nearly 70% of India’s greenhouse gas emissions.
  • The U.S. commits to abandoning coal for energy use by 2035 but draws only 20% of its energy from coal.
  • The commitment to renewable energy by major economies lacks a clear plan to replace existing and future fossil fuel capacity.

The journey towards a plastic-free world: Page 13

  • The Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee (INC) met for its third round of negotiations to develop a legally binding instrument to end plastic pollution globally.
  • The INC operates under the United Nations Environment Programme, with the goal of delivering a global plastics treaty by 2025 (UN Environment Assembly Resolution 5/14).
  • The INC-3 discussed the ‘zero draft’ text, which aimed to create a binding treaty to address plastic pollution.
  • The zero draft initially contained strong options but faced negotiations that led to a weakening of core obligations, particularly regarding primary polymer production, chemicals of concern, problematic plastics, trade, and financial mechanisms.
  • Some countries, including Saudi Arabia, Russia, China, Iran, and members of the Gulf Cooperation Council, pushed for economic considerations in the treaty’s objective, arguing for sustainable development alongside ending plastic pollution.
  • Controversy arose over the reduction in the production of primary polymers, with industry influence evident in the presence of lobbyists.
  • Disagreements persisted on when the lifecycle of plastics begins, with some arguing at the point of raw material sourcing and others at product design.
  • Financial mechanisms, including a plastic-pollution fee and reducing financial flow into high carbon footprint projects, faced opposition from certain countries.
  • Restrictions on plastic trade were contested by a group of countries, claiming it impinged on national freedom and sovereignty.
  • The Center for International Environmental Law argued that World Trade Organization rules allow for trade restrictions when necessary to protect life or health.
  • Like-minded countries rejected upstream measures, diluted midstream measures with voluntary approaches, and emphasized “national circumstances and capabilities.”
  • Rules of procedure remained provisional, and no consensus was reached, leading to delays and a setback for intersessional work before INC-4.
  • The African group and Small-Island Developing States advocated for strong binding provisions, emphasizing human rights and public health perspectives.
  • INC-3 exposed industry influence and revealed member states opposing a strong binding treaty to end plastic pollution.

Understanding how the Global Positioning System (GPS) works: Page 14

  • The Global Positioning System (GPS) has had a revolutionary impact on various sectors, including agriculture, construction, surveying, logistics, and military operations.
  • Initiated by the U.S. Department of Defense in 1973, the modern GPS satellite constellation consists of 24 satellites in six orbits.
  • The GPS system has three main components: the space segment (24 satellites), the control segment (ground-based control stations), and the user segment (applications in various sectors).
  • The control segment ensures the proper functioning of satellites, tracks their performance, and transmits commands. The master control station is at Schriever Air Force Base, Colorado.
  • The user segment involves the application of GPS technology in sectors such as agriculture, construction, surveying, logistics, telecommunications, power transmission, search and rescue, air travel, meteorology, seismology, and military operations.
  • In 2021, an estimated 6.5 billion Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) devices were installed worldwide, with expectations to reach 10 billion by 2031.
  • Each GPS satellite continuously broadcasts a radio signal containing information about its location, operational status, and emitted time.
  • GPS receivers on devices calculate their precise distance from satellites by measuring the time it takes for the signals to travel.
  • Adjustments are made to account for factors like gravitational potential, satellite clock differences, and relative velocities.
  • GPS satellites are equipped with atomic clocks synchronized to within 10 nanoseconds of each other, ensuring accurate timekeeping.
  • Other countries, including Russia, the European Union, China, India, Japan, South Korea, and the U.K., operate their own Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS).
  • India’s Navigation with Indian Constellation (NavIC) and GPS-Aided Geo Augmented Navigation (GAGAN) systems are examples of regional navigation systems developed by ISRO for ground-based navigation and civil aviation applications.

Nov. services PMI signals slowdown: Page 16

  • India’s services sector momentum reached a one-year low in November, with the S&P Global India Services Business Activity Index dropping to 56.9 from 58.4 in October.
  • The overall private sector activity, when combined with the manufacturing Purchasing Managers’ Index (PMI), experienced the weakest rise in a year, with the S&P Global India Composite PMI Output Index easing to 57.4 from 58.4 in October.
  • New export orders for services firms grew at the slowest pace since June.
  • Input costs and output prices rose at an eight-month low rate.
  • Despite remaining positive about future business prospects, firms expressed concerns about faster inflation, leading to a slight fading of optimism.
  • Outstanding business volumes were stable, influencing a restrained approach to fresh hiring, resulting in the weakest pace of net employment expansion since April.
  • Operating expenses increased, with rising costs in labor, food, material, and transportation since October.
  • The overall uptick in costs was below the long-run average, with consumer services firms experiencing the highest rate of input cost inflation.
  • While prices were raised at a pace above the long-run trend, it was the slowest in eight months. Finance and insurance showed the strongest upturn in selling prices.
  • Some relief on costs led fewer firms to raise their fees in November, potentially boosting demand as 2023 progresses to a close.

Source: The Hindu Epaper

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