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The Hindu PDF 5 December 2023 Analysis

The Hindu PDF GKGSCA

The Hindu PDF 5 December 2023 Newspaper is considered an important source of news and information for UPSC (Union Public Service Commission) aspirants in India. This The Hindu Epaper PDF newspaper covers a wide range of topics that are relevant to the UPSC exam, including politics, economics, international relations, governance, and social issues.

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The Hindu Epaper Analysis 5 December 2023 for UPSC

One-third of all 2022 suicides were of daily wage earners, farmers, says NCRB report: Page 4

  • Suicides in 2022:
  • India reported over 1.7 lakh suicides.
  • One-third of suicides were daily wage earners, agricultural laborers, and farmers.
  • Crime and Atrocities:
  • Overall increase in crimes against Scheduled Castes (SC) and Scheduled Tribes (ST).
  • Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan among the top five states with the highest incidents.
  • Mizoram reported cases of atrocities against SCs and STs in 2022.
  • UAPA and Sedition Cases:
  • About a 25% increase in cases under the Unlawful Activities Prevention Act (UAPA).
  • Dramatic dip in sedition cases, possibly due to a Supreme Court decision.
  • Fake Currency Seizures:
  • Seized fake Indian currency notes worth over ₹342 crore in 2022.
  • ₹244 crore were copies of the ₹2,000 currency note.
  • State-wise Suicides:
  • Maharashtra reported the highest suicides, followed by Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, and Telangana.
  • Occupation-related Suicides:
  • 9.6% of suicides were self-employed or salaried professionals.
  • 9.2% were unemployed.
  • Over 12,000 suicides were of students.
  • States with Zero Farmer Suicides:
  • Several states/UTs reported zero suicides of farmers/cultivators and agricultural laborers.
  • Women Suicides:
  • Around 48,000 women died by suicide in 2022.
  • Over 52% were homemakers, comprising about 14% of total suicides.
  • Common causes: “Family problems” and “illness” accounting for almost half.
  • Other Suicides:
  • 28 trans-persons reported to have died by suicide in 2022.
  • Common causes include “drug abuse,” “alcohol addiction,” and “marriage related issues,” with dowry-related issues affecting women.

Needless diversion: Page 6

  • Venezuela holds a referendum on sovereignty over Essequibo, a disputed region with Guyana.
  • Over 95% of voters support Venezuela’s claim, inflaming tensions between the nations.
  • President Nicolás Maduro conducts the referendum months before the next presidential election.
  • Venezuela claims historical rights over Essequibo, alleging it was stolen during colonial border drawing.
  • In 1966, a temporary Geneva Agreement aimed to maintain the status quo, but tensions rise with Guyana’s economic transformation.
  • Guyana, the only English-speaking country in Latin America, asserts the finality of the 1899 border agreement and seeks an International Court of Justice ruling.
  • Venezuela argues non-participation in the 1899 agreement and dismisses the court’s jurisdiction.
  • The U.S. eases sanctions on Venezuela amid international pressure for free elections.
  • Maduro faces domestic challenges, including economic issues, shortages, and hyperinflation.
  • A border conflict might distract from domestic issues but won’t solve Venezuela’s multiple crises.
  • Maduro urged to refrain from unilateral action and resolve territorial disputes with Guyana through talks under the Geneva Agreement.

Centre committed to increasing the strength of women in defence forces, says Modi: Page 9

  • PM Narendra Modi emphasizes the government’s commitment to increasing women’s strength in the armed forces.
  • Modi speaks in Sindhudurg district, Maharashtra, on Navy Day, highlighting India’s pursuit of ambitious goals.
  • The Prime Minister unveils a statue of Chhatrapati Shivaji, praising the 17th-century Maratha warrior king for his foresight on naval capabilities.
  • Ranks in the Indian Navy to be renamed according to Indian culture, showcasing pride in the country’s heritage.
  • Modi congratulates the Navy for appointing the first woman commanding officer on a naval ship.
  • Recognition of Shivaji’s maritime heritage, with his seal inspiring the naval ensign adopted during the commissioning of INS Vikrant.
  • Commitment from the Union and State governments to preserve forts from Shivaji’s era, with substantial funds allocated for conservation.
  • The preservation efforts aimed at boosting tourism, creating new employment, and self-employment opportunities in Maharashtra’s Konkan region.

‘India, U.S. can work through differences constructively’: Page 10

  • U.S. Principal Deputy NSA Jonathan Finer visits New Delhi for high-level meetings amid tensions following the U.S. indictment linking an Indian government official to an assassination plot.
  • Despite differences, India and the U.S. express the ability to overcome challenges in bilateral ties.
  • Finer holds talks with the National Security Council, Deputy NSA Vikram Misri, External Affairs Minister S. Jaishankar, NSA Ajit Doval, and Foreign Secretary Vinay Kwatra.
  • Both sides acknowledge difficult issues in the relationship but emphasize working through differences constructively.
  • Finer discusses the “complicated history” of the relationship and highlights the ability to seize opportunities and cooperate geopolitically and economically.
  • Jaishankar emphasizes the stability, investment, and structural soundness of India-U.S. relations over two decades and five U.S. Presidents.
  • No direct mention of the indictment during the meetings, and both sides do not confirm whether the Pannun plot issue was raised.
  • The MEA expresses “concern” over the U.S. allegations and forms a high-level inquiry committee to investigate.
  • The U.S. Embassy and MEA do not disclose details about discussions related to the Pannun plot during the meetings.

The need to transform agri-food systems: Page 11

  • The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) report reveals global agri-food systems’ hidden costs surpassing $10 trillion.
  • In middle-income countries like India, these costs constitute nearly 11% of GDP, leading to higher poverty, environmental harm, and health-related impacts.
  • The report attributes escalating costs to “unsustainable business-as-usual activities and practices,” emphasizing the need to transform agri-food systems.
  • Intensive agriculture in India, focusing on mono-cropping and chemical-intensive practices, led to impressive productivity gains over the last five decades.
  • The Green Revolution promoted high-yielding varieties of paddy and wheat, compromising seed sovereignty, Indigenous knowledge, and shifting from diverse crops to monoculture.
  • Procurement policies favor rice and wheat, leading to a decline in coarse grains’ cultivation, impacting food security and nutrition.
  • Water-intensive cash crops like sugarcane and areca nut flourish under policies favoring investments in dams and canal irrigation, posing threats to food security and biodiversity.
  • Global food system structure influences local farmers and soil health, with fluctuating global market prices affecting income for soy farmers in India.
  • The FAO report advocates for a systemic shift from local to global value chains and emphasizes the importance of crop diversification rooted in agroecology principles.
  • Diversified multi-cropping systems can revitalize degraded land and soil, providing cash from commercial crops, food and fodder production, and ecosystem services.
  • Critics’ concerns about alternative farming systems leading to income decline are countered by the FAO report, highlighting substantial hidden costs in current systems.
  • Millets, more nutritious and sustainable, can provide a diversified food basket without burdening groundwater tables.
  • Transitioning farmers away from mono-cultivation requires systematic and gradual approaches, such as moving from chemical-intensive to non-pesticide management and adopting natural farming practices.
  • Economic modeling suggests potential improvements in ecological outcomes and sustaining farm incomes through diversified cropping.
  • Overcoming challenges related to local seeds, institutional arrangements, drudgery, and labor is crucial for the successful transition to diversified farming.
  • Scaling up practices necessitates collaboration among institutions, policymakers, and social groups to provide economic incentives for farmers to shift from high-input monoculture.

Mapping the socio-economic changes in the lower Cauvery delta: Page 12

  • Decline in Rice Cultivation:
  • Lower Cauvery delta has declined as a hub of rice cultivation.
  • Decline attributed to changes in water-sharing arrangements between Karnataka and Tamil Nadu, affecting Cauvery water supply.
  • Economic Impact:
  • Economic impact due to the drop in rice cultivation.
  • Lack of new economic activities beyond crop production, particularly rice.
  • Persistence of Inequality:
  • Despite the absence of “old forms of tyrannical landlordism” and economic oppression of Dalits, inequality persists in the agrarian sector.
  • Landlords, constituting a small percentage of households, own a significant proportion of agricultural land.
  • Impact on Employment and Income:
  • Changes in agriculture sector affect employment and income.
  • Decline in rice yields and lack of new economic activities contribute to economic challenges.
  • Effects on Education, Sanitation, and Housing:
  • Changes in crop patterns impact education, sanitation, and housing.
  • Limited diversification of economic activities affects overall development.
  • Importance of Structural Change:
  • Emphasis on the need for fundamental structural change to prevent the gains in economic performance and human development from being in vain.
  • Historical changes in the relations of production but limitations to “growth without structural change.”
  • Historical Context of Villages:
  • Palakurichi and Venmani villages on the “tail-end” of the Cauvery irrigation system.
  • Historical significance of Palakurichi in economic studies since the early 20th century.
  • Keelavenmani in Venmani witnessed a tragic event in 1968.
  • Factors Contributing to Crop Pattern Changes:
  • Changes in water supply from the Cauvery, uneven water supply, and lack of suitable crops for a new water regime.
  • Droughts, floods, and cyclonic activities impact crop regimes and agricultural policies.
  • Social Differences and Land Ownership:
  • Changes in the land ownership structure with Dalits owning land in both villages.
  • Landlords still hold a significant share of agricultural land, contributing to social inequality.
  • Class Structure:
  • Largest class in the villages consists of wage laborers engaged in multiple agricultural and non-agricultural jobs.
  • Historic Changes in Production Relations:
  • Historic changes in the relations of production influenced by class and anti-caste struggles.
  • Limits to the success of “growth without structural change” in addressing social and economic inequality.
  • Conclusion:
  • Tamil Nadu’s advancement compared to other states but persistent inequalities due to the lack of upheaval in production relations.
  • Society deeply embedded with inequalities of class, caste, and gender.

Source: The Hindu Epaper

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