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The Hindu PDF 4 February 2024 Analysis

The Hindu PDF 4 February 2024 Newspaper is considered an important source of news and information for UPSC (Union Public Service Commission) aspirants in India. The Hindu Epaper PDF newspaper covers a wide range of topics that are relevant to the UPSC exam, including politics, economics, international relations, governance, and social issues.

In the following article, we have shared the key points from The Hindu Newspaper today pdf for the students preparing for the UPSC and other competitive exams. These points from The Hindu newspaper pdf serve as current affairs material for their preparation.

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The Hindu Epaper Analysis 4 February 2024 for UPSC

BJP veteran Advani to be awarded the Bharat Ratna: Page 1
  • L.K. Advani, former Deputy Prime Minister, to be awarded Bharat Ratna
  • He was instrumental in the Rath Yatra for the Ayodhya Ram Temple movement
  • Previously awarded Padma Vibhushan in 2015
  • Announcement made by Prime Minister Narendra Modi
  • PM Modi congratulated Advani personally
  • Advani released a statement expressing gratitude for the honor
  • Acknowledged the award as recognition of his ideals and principles
  • Started his journey with RSS at 14 years old
  • Remembered leaders like Deendayal Upadhyaya, Atal Behari Vajpayee, and his wife Kamala
  • His Ram Rath Yatra in 1990 was significant in redefining national politics
  • Led to the destruction of Babri mosque in 1992
  • Contributed to BJP’s rise in national politics, leading to government formation
  • Served as Union Home Minister and Deputy Prime Minister
  • Leader of Opposition during the UPA era
  • Had some disagreements with RSS and BJP, especially regarding his Pakistan visit and comments on Jinnah
  • Projected as BJP’s Prime Ministerial candidate in 2009, but UPA government returned to power
Big jump by Haryana youth, giant leap for Kalaripayattu: Page 1
  • Mohini Dahiya, 14, from Haryana’s Hisar, introduced to Kalaripayattu a year ago
  • Her father, an autorickshaw driver, initially hesitant due to unfamiliarity with the sport
  • Mohini enjoys the jumping and kicking involved in Kalaripayattu
  • Haryana ranked second in Kalaripayattu at the Khelo India Youth Games 2023, after Kerala
  • Four medals won by Haryana, including a gold for a high kick by Aryan Goyat, 17
  • Introduction of Kalaripayattu to Khelo India Youth Games in 2021 led to its popularity in Haryana
  • Aryan Goyat transitioned to Kalaripayattu from thang-ta after a camp in Panipat
  • Growing interest in Kalaripayattu due to its novelty and relatively low competition
  • Haryana Kalaripayattu ad hoc committee general secretary Ramachandran P.R. highlights Haryana’s success in specific events
  • Khushiyal Singh, 18, finds Kalaripayattu interesting and easier to secure a place in the State team
  • Arjun Chauhan, a martial arts academy owner, mentions Kalaripayattu’s appeal as self-defense and its safety compared to wrestling and boxing
  • Sawmya M. Pillai, a coach, notes the increasing enrollment of north Indian students in Kalaripayattu training centers, with parents seeking to reduce screen time for children
Ladakh protesters seek Statehood and constitutional safeguards: Page 7
  • Ladakh observes complete shutdown demanding constitutional safeguards, cultural identity protection, and Statehood
  • Thousands gather in Leh for protest organized by Leh Apex Body (LAB)
  • Record number of participants from all parts of Ladakh, including China border and Nubra Valley
  • LAB and Kargil Democratic Alliance (KDA) jointly protest for Statehood, inclusion in Sixth Schedule, job reservation, and Lok Sabha seats
  • Former BJP member Thupstan Chhewang vows to fight for Ladakh’s cause
  • Sonam Wangchuk, renowned education reformer, supports the protest
  • Ladakh became a Union Territory on August 5, 2019, following the split of Jammu and Kashmir
  • Ministry of Home Affairs formed a committee to address Ladakh’s grievances
  • Committee led by Minister of State (Home) Nityanand Rai held its first meeting in December 2023
  • Next meeting scheduled for February 19
  • Committee to examine demands for constitutional safeguards
  • Ladakh has witnessed shutdowns in the past due to concerns over local empowerment and bureaucratic overreach
Dusted Apollo sighted for first time in Himachal’s Chamba: Page 9
  • Rare high-altitude butterfly “Dusted Apollo” sighted for the first time in Himachal Pradesh
  • Sighted and photographed in September 2023 during a trek to Manimahesh Lake in Chamba
  • Discovered in 1890, its distribution range extends from Ladakh to west Nepal, flying between 3,500 to 4,800 meters in the inner Himalayas
  • Sighted by forest guards Gajinder Verma and Abinash Thakur
  • Identified by butterfly expert Lovish Garlani, closely resembling Ladakh Banded Apollo but distinguished by characteristics on fore and hind wings
  • Another rare species, Regal Apollo, also photographed at Manimahesh
  • The sighting indicates a flourishing diversity of Apollo butterflies in the region
  • Apollo butterflies are commercially important and face poaching threats
  • 11 Apollo species recorded in Himachal Pradesh, five declared as Scheduled species
  • Concerns over declining butterfly numbers, emphasizing the need for conservation efforts
  • Recommendations include community awareness, protection measures, and establishing butterfly parks and conservation reserves.
Thailand and Sri Lanka sign free trade agreement: Page 10
  • Thailand and Sri Lanka signed a Free Trade Agreement (FTA) to boost economic ties.
  • Sri Lanka aims to overcome a severe financial crisis.
  • The FTA covers Trade in Goods, Investment, Customs Procedure, and Intellectual Property Rights.
  • Thai Prime Minister Srettha Thavisin led the delegation to sign the FTA in Colombo.
  • Mr. Thavisin will also participate in Sri Lanka’s 76th Independence Day celebrations.
Reducing ammonia emissions through fertilizer management: Page 11
  • Researchers used machine learning to estimate ammonia emissions from rice, wheat, and maize crops.
  • The dataset allowed for a cropland-specific assessment, indicating potential emission reductions of up to 38%.
  • Ammonia emissions are a significant environmental pollutant, affecting ecosystems and human health.
  • 51-60% of anthropogenic ammonia emissions come from crop cultivation, with rice, wheat, and maize being major contributors.
  • Quantifying potential emission reductions depends on factors like nitrogen inputs and local emission factors.
  • Machine learning models considered various variables like climate, soil characteristics, crop types, and fertilization practices.
  • Global ammonia emissions reached 4.3 teragrams in 2018.
  • Optimizing fertilizer management could lead to a 38% reduction in emissions from rice, wheat, and maize.
  • Enhanced-efficiency fertilizers placed deeper into the soil during conventional tillage practices could help achieve this reduction.
  • Rice crops could contribute 47% to the total reduction potential, while maize and wheat could contribute 27% and 26%, respectively.
  • Without management strategies, ammonia emissions could increase by 4.6% to 15.8% by 2100, depending on future greenhouse gas emissions.
How many trees do we have?: Page 11
  • Earth has approximately three trillion trees, as estimated in a study using ground-based sample counts and satellite imagery.
  • This number surprised many as it was higher than previous estimates, with an average of over 400 trees per human.
  • South American rainforests contain 15-20% of the world’s trees, while boreal forests in Canada and Russia have a large number of conifers.
  • Canadian residents have nearly 9,000 trees per person, while Bahrain has only 3,100 trees for 15 lakh people.
  • Grasslands, along with marine cyanobacteria and algae, also contribute significantly to oxygen production.
  • Trees play a vital role in removing carbon from the atmosphere, with coal formed from ancient trees locking up carbon.
  • India has an estimated 28 trees per person, with variations due to population density and deforestation history.
  • Moist tropical forests are found in the Western and Eastern Ghats, Northeast India, and Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
  • Arunachal Pradesh has 80% forest cover, while Rajasthan has less than 10%.
  • Reforestation efforts are important for India’s Forest Policy goal, with Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu showing the best improvement in forest cover according to the India State of Forest Report (ISFR) 2021.
Why are nations revising rules for foreign students?: Page 12
  • Nations revising rules for foreign students, making it harder for Indian students to migrate abroad for higher education
  • Canada and the U.K. tightening rules for university admissions
  • Canada increased GIC amount from 10,000 to 20,635 Canadian dollars; U.K. restricts dependant family entry from 2024
  • Germany and Australia also increased GIC amount by approximately 10% annually
  • Canada restricts study permits to 3.6 lakh from nearly four lakh; impact on Indian students, especially those pursuing diploma level courses
  • Canada’s move aims to address ‘diploma mills’ issue, spouses will not get work permits
  • Masters students can apply for a three-year work permit after completing their course
  • Stricter guidelines affect those seeking Bachelors’ degree in Canada, visa applications on hold until March
  • Demand for studying in Canada dropped by half while demand for Germany increased
  • Other emerging study abroad destinations include Taiwan and Israel
Why is fiscal consolidation so important?: Page 12
  • Fiscal consolidation is important for maintaining economic stability and credibility, ensuring that government spending doesn’t exceed revenue
  • The fiscal deficit estimate in the recent Union Budget is considered ambitious as it aims to reduce to 5.1% of GDP in 2024-25 and below 4.5% by 2025-26
  • Fiscal deficit refers to the shortfall when government expenditure exceeds revenue; national debt is the total amount owed by the government to lenders
  • Government funds its fiscal deficit mainly by borrowing money from the bond market
  • Centre expected to borrow ₹14.13 lakh crore from the market in 2024-25, lower than previous year’s borrowing goal
  • Lower fiscal deficit can improve ratings of government bonds, reduce borrowing costs, and signal fiscal discipline
  • High fiscal deficit can lead to inflation, affect management of public debt, and hinder access to international bond market
  • Centre plans to reduce fiscal deficit despite boosting capital expenditure, relying on tax collections and cuts in subsidies
  • However, meeting the ambitious fiscal deficit target is uncertain and may impact economic growth
The dispute over Varanasi, Mathura mosques: Page 12
  • Spotlight back on Places of Worship (Special Provisions) Act, 1991, due to civil suits questioning religious character of mosques in Varanasi and Mathura
  • Act enacted in 1991 to freeze status of places of worship as of August 15, 1947, amidst Babri-Masjid Ram Janmabhoomi dispute
  • Act prohibits conversion of religious denomination, abates pending suits on changing character of places of worship, with exceptions for ancient monuments, settled disputes, and conversions by acquiescence
  • Ongoing cases in Varanasi involve Hindu claimants asserting right to worship deities in Gyanvapi mosque premises, alleging existence of ancient temple demolished by Aurangzeb
  • Court orders have allowed these suits to proceed, stating they don’t violate Act as they assert right to worship, not change status of mosque
  • Similar suits in Mathura challenge compromise decree between Sri Krishna Janmasthan Seva Sansthan and Shahi Idgah Trust, seeking transfer of land to deity
  • Court views these suits as not barred by Act, as they challenge compromise decree made before Act came into force
  • Court decisions highlight that Act doesn’t define ‘religious character’, requiring examination of evidence to determine it, and doesn’t apply to pre-existing decrees or settlements

Source: The Hindu Epaper

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