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The Hindu PDF 19 December 2023 Analysis

The Hindu PDF GKGSCA

The Hindu PDF 19 December 2023 Newspaper is considered an important source of news and information for UPSC (Union Public Service Commission) aspirants in India. This The Hindu Epaper PDF newspaper covers a wide range of topics that are relevant to the UPSC exam, including politics, economics, international relations, governance, and social issues.

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The Hindu Epaper Analysis 19 December 2023 for UPSC

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Omnibus Telecom Bill in Lok Sabha, legislation to streamline regulation: Page 1

  • Telecom Bill, 2023 introduced in Lok Sabha.
  • Replaces Telegraph Act, 1885 after 138 years.
  • Telecom operators need “authorizations,” not licenses.
  • Broad definition includes various Internet-based services.
  • Consolidates amendments and structures accumulated over the years.
  • National Frequency Allocation Plan gains statutory force.
  • Spectrum allotment through auctions preferred, administrative in certain cases.
  • Retains provisions for lawful interception and government takeover.
  • Empowers local authorities for right-of-way dispute resolution.
  • Biometric authentication for telecom customers to curb spam.
  • Telcos can repurpose spectrum for different technologies.
  • Trusted Sources regime limits telecom equipment imports from hostile nations.
  • Allows spectrum allotments to satellite Internet providers like OneWeb and SpaceX’s Starlink.
  • Currently, active authorizations granted to OneWeb and Jio.

A blow for the rights of the legislature, in law making: Page 10

  • CJI D.Y. Chandrachud’s interpretation of Article 200 in State of Punjab vs Principal Secretary to the Governor of Punjab.
  • Focus on the first proviso of Article 200 regarding the Governor’s options for Bills.
  • Governor’s power to withhold assent linked to sending the Bill back for immediate reconsideration.
  • Supreme Court’s stance: Governors cannot delay decisions on Bills.
  • Clarity brought to Article 200; Governors must promptly decide on Bills.
  • Governor’s discretion to reserve Bills for the President, with some Bills mandatorily reserved.
  • Questioning the scope of Governor’s discretion in reserving Bills for the President.
  • Indirect references in Article 213 and Article 254 on Bills related to State subjects.
  • Governor cannot send exclusively State subject Bills to the President.
  • Governor not personally responsible for government actions; constitutional validity decided by the court.

Grass-root democracy as a bulwark against Maoists: Page 10

  • Tribal vote crucial in Chhattisgarh elections; 34% tribal population.
  • Maoist insurgency in tribal areas, particularly Bastar.
  • Maoist-affected areas, like Bijapur and Konta, had low voter turnout (3-4%).
  • Maoists boycott democratic process, claiming to fight for people’s cause.
  • Trend of lower participation in elections possibly due to tribal disillusionment.
  • Dominant election issue: religion-based conversions, seen as a manufactured agenda.
  • Tribals increasingly assert their rights and demand entitlements under the Constitution.
  • Provisions of the Panchayats (Extension to Scheduled Areas) Act (PESA) discussed.
  • PESA Act aims for grassroots empowerment; states haven’t implemented it effectively.
  • Maoists exploit gaps in PESA implementation for their agenda through ‘jantana sarkar.’
  • PESA Act could be a key enabler to mainstream tribal communities and make Maoists irrelevant.
  • Need for nurturing tribal leadership, acknowledging their voice, and enabling democracy at the grassroots.
  • Resolving the Maoist challenge involves more than security and development; requires addressing tribal aspirations and exposing Maoists’ ulterior motives.

What does COP-28 mean for cities?: Page 12

  • COP-28: Mixed outcomes, no clear stance on ending fossil fuels.
  • Global Stock Taking and Loss and Damage Fund discussed.
  • Focus on both mitigation and adaptation.
  • Cities’ Importance in Climate Action:
  • Current urban population: 55%, expected to reach 68% by 2050.
  • Cities consume 75% of energy, contribute to 70% of CO2 emissions.
  • Paris commitments rely on addressing urban issues.
  • COP-28 City Discussion:
  • Special day for urbanization and climate change ministerial meeting.
  • Emphasis on “nothing for us without us” for city representatives.
  • Call for redefining COP financial and governance structures.

Why has a survey been approved at the Shahi Idgah?: Page 12

  • Allahabad High Court approved a survey of Shahi Idgah in Mathura.
  • Justice Mayank Kumar Jain ordered the inspection, emphasizing the maintenance of campus sanctity.
  • Survey requested by Hindu deity Shri Krishna and seven others who claim the mosque was built on Shri Krishna’s birthplace in 1670.
  • Nine cases related to Shri Krishna Janmabhoomi and Shahi Idgah filed since the Babri Masjid judgment in 2019.
  • U.P. Sunni Central Waqf Board and Shahi Idgah Masjid Committee argue mosque doesn’t cover Lord Krishna’s birthplace, based on guesswork.
  • Supreme Court rejected a stay on the survey, stating no relief unless an adverse order is passed.
  • Places of Worship Act, 1991, prohibits changing the character of a place of worship as of August 15, 1947.
  • Ongoing debate on the interpretation of the Act; some seek to declare Section 4 ultra vires.
  • Survey initiated due to Hindu demand for ownership of land where Keshava Deva temple stood, destroyed by Aurangzeb in 1670.
  • Temple built in 1618, patronized by Aurangzeb’s brother Dara Shukoh; land bought in 1815, sold to Jugal Kishore Birla in 1968.
  • Agreement in 1968 conceded a portion of land to Shahi Idgah; temple petitioners now seek possession of the entire parcel.

India’s first winter Arctic expedition begins; Raman Research Institute team to hold study: Page 16

  • Raman Research Institute (RRI) part of India’s first winter Arctic expedition.
  • Earth Sciences Minister Kiren Rijiju flagged off the expedition.
  • RRI researchers to study radio frequency environment in Svalbard, Norway.
  • Aim is to assess suitability for precision astronomy measurements.
  • India’s research station, Himadri, in Svalbard since 2008.
  • Winter expedition aims for year-long presence at the station.
  • Four scientists from RRI selected for experiments in astronomy, climate change, and atmospheric science.
  • Girish B.S. leads the team; survey of radio frequency environment never done before at the site.
  • Potential for deploying low-frequency radio telescopes in the region.
  • Expedition funded by Earth Sciences Ministry; National Centre for Polar and Ocean Research, Goa, leads.
  • SARAS series of experiments by RRI aims to study 21-cm signal from cosmic dawn and epoch of reionization.
  • Urbanization limits suitable sites for cosmological studies; Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) is a challenge.
  • Sensitive instruments to study radio signals in the 5-500 MHz frequency range.

Direct taxes swell, exceed 75% of BE: Page 17

  • Net direct tax collections grew 20.7% by December 17, reaching ₹13.70 lakh crore.
  • Represents 75.15% of the year’s direct tax target, indicating strong performance.
  • As of November 30, net direct tax was ₹10.64 lakh crore, 58.34% of the Budget estimate.
  • Collections in December alone increased by ₹3.06 lakh crore based on provisional numbers.
  • Components include Corporation Tax (CIT) at ₹6,94,798 crore and Personal Income Tax (PIT) at ₹6,72,962 crore.
  • Total Advance Tax collections for the year at ₹6,25,249 crore, reflecting 19.94% growth.
  • Corporate taxes contribute ₹4,81,840 crore, and personal income tax contributes ₹1,43,404 crore.
  • Refunds of over ₹22,000 crore processed in December; total tax refunds at ₹2,25,251 crore.
  • Gross direct tax collections at ₹15,95,639 crore, comprising CIT of ₹7,90,049 crore and ₹8,02,902 crore from PIT and Securities Transaction Tax.
  • Breakdown includes Advance Tax, Tax Deducted at Source, Self-Assessment Tax, Regular Assessment Tax, and Tax under other minor heads.
  • Finance Ministry provides data in a statement.

Hopes of Gelephu project, and economy revival dominate voters in Bhutan: Page 18

  • Gelephu “mindfulness” mega-city project or Special Administrative Region (SAR) announced by Bhutan’s King Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck.
  • Key focus for the next Prime Minister after January 9 elections along with economic revival and reversing youth migration.
  • Contenders include former PM Tshering Tobgay of PDP and former top civil servant Pema Chewang of BTP.
  • Gelephu project seen as a major responsibility, aims to be an economic hub on Bhutan’s southern border with Assam.
  • PDP’s Tobgay emphasizes the project’s hope to provide work and skilling opportunities for Bhutanese youth, reversing migration trends.
  • Economic challenges post-COVID led to youth out-migration; goal is to create opportunities within Bhutan.
  • Gelephu project viewed as historic, covering a 1000-sq. km SAR, not only for Bhutanese but for all of South Asia.
  • PDP leads in votes and seats after the primary round, but analysts warn of potential surprises in the second round.
  • Bhutanese voters express concerns about inflation, economic issues, and hope for stable tourism policies.
  • King Jigme Wangchuck, in his National Day speech, highlights the Gelephu project’s aim to bring back educated and skilled Bhutanese abroad.

Afghanistan, left out of COP-28, hopes for inclusion in COP-29: SCIENCE Page II

  • Afghanistan excluded from COP-28 climate summit in Dubai for the third consecutive year.
  • The country faces worsening drought and floods, raising humanitarian concerns.
  • Taliban’s restrictions on women, including barring girls and women from high school and universities, cited as a reason for isolation.
  • No foreign government formally recognizes Taliban leadership, and Afghanistan lacks a seat at the U.N. General Assembly.
  • Efforts made to allow Afghan representatives at COP-28 were unsuccessful.
  • Hope for potential engagement with Afghanistan in future climate conferences.
  • The U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) defers a decision on future Afghanistan representation.
  • Taliban administration calls COP-28 exclusion “regrettable.”
  • Women, constituting a significant portion of the population, face severe food insecurity.
  • Taliban’s control hampers Afghanistan’s access to key U.N. climate funds, including the Green Climate Fund (GCF).
  • GCF-approved sustainable energy project in Afghanistan, worth nearly $18 million, put on hold after Taliban takeover.
  • Other proposals for projects, seeking over $750 million, including irrigation improvement and rooftop solar panels, have been postponed.

Source: The Hindu Epaper

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