The Hindu PDF 16 October 2023 Analysis

The Hindu PDF Newspaper is considered an important source of news and information for UPSC (Union Public Service Commission) aspirants in India. This The Hindu Epaper PDF newspaper covers a wide range of topics that are relevant to the UPSC exam, including politics, economics, international relations, governance, and social issues.

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The Hindu PDF Analysis 16 October 2023 for UPSC

Israel readies for attack as a million people evacuate: Page 1

  • Israel preparing for an attack in retaliation to Hamas attacks.
  • Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu vows to “demolish Hamas.”
  • 1,300 people dead from the recent attacks.
  • Israel resumed water supply to southern Gaza after stopping it earlier.
  • One million people evacuated from northern Gaza.
  • Evacuation intended to push civilians to the southern strip.
  • Decision to resume water supply made after talks between Netanyahu and U.S. President Joe Biden.
  • Water shortage at UN shelters in Gaza.
  • Over 2,670 killed and nearly 10,000 wounded in Israeli air strikes.
  • U.S. Secretary of State Antony Blinken working to prevent escalation and secure the release of hostages.
  • Arab leaders emphasizing the need to protect Gaza civilians.
  • Renewed clashes on Israel’s border with Lebanon.
  • Hamas fired rockets from Lebanon, and Hezbollah targeted Israeli barracks.
  • Some Palestinians unable to evacuate due to medical reasons.
  • Critical situation in Gaza due to the conflict.

New investments slowed again in Q2 of 2023-24: survey: Page 1

  • Fresh investment announcements in Q2 2023-24: ₹6.9 lakh crore.
  • 13% lower than Q1 and 21.5% lower compared to the previous year.
  • Decline seen in various sectors: manufacturing, mining, infrastructure, and electricity.
  • Private investment plans shrank for the second consecutive quarter, with a 0.24% decline in Q2.
  • Foreign investor announcements decreased by 66.5% in Q2.
  • Government investments also slowed, with a 25.6% decline in fresh investment intentions.
  • States’ investment plans recorded a 4.7% shrinkage in Q2.
  • The irrigation sector was the only one to show an uptick in Q2.
  • The outlook for the second half of the year is mixed due to upcoming elections and global economic risks.
  • Hope for an uptick in Q3 and Q4 depends on higher project announcements from the Union government before the general election.

Vizhinjam port on maritime map with berthing of first ship: Page 5

  • Zhen Hua 15, the first ship at Vizhinjam International Seaport, marks a significant moment for Kerala.
  • The ship carried container-handling cranes to the under-construction port.
  • Chief Minister Pinarayi Vijayan emphasized unity and overcoming crises for development.
  • The port is expected to raise the standard of living and contribute to Kerala’s development.
  • Mention of attempts by international and commercial lobbies to thwart the port’s progress.
  • Vizhinjam’s strategic location, 10 nautical miles from international shipping routes.
  • Vizhinjam will be the largest private port in Kerala and the first semi-automated container terminal in India.
  • It will serve as a global bunkering hub for clean fuels like hydrogen and ammonia.
  • Vizhinjam aims to be one of the greenest ports globally and compete with leading ports like Colombo, Singapore, and Jebel Ali.

The Israel-Hamas conflict and Nusseibeh’s analysis: Page 6

  • Ongoing conflict between Israel and Hamas prompts analysis on who won.
  • A total failure of intelligence on the part of Israel and the United States regarding Hamas’s attack on Israel.
  • Hamas’s attack boosted its morale and compelled Israel to declare ‘war.’
  • Hamas has achieved a sustained rocket attack on Israel, inflicting heavy casualties.
  • The Palestinian Authority in the West Bank faces challenges, and support for Hamas increases.
  • In military terms, Israel is likely to prevail but with heavy casualties.
  • The war’s ultimate losers are the ordinary people on both sides.
  • India’s strong support for Israel may impact Arab countries’ normalization efforts with Israel.
  • Sari Nusseibeh’s analysis questions the morality and ethics of pursuing unattainable objectives in conflicts.
  • Compares this analysis to the Kashmir issue, suggesting the need for compromise.
  • Nusseibeh’s argument calls for reconsideration of the Kashmir problem, applying the logic of compromise.

The world needs to stop taking water for granted: Page 6

Israel, Hamas, and the laws of war: Page 8

  • Laws of war consist of jus ad bellum and jus in bello.
  • Jus ad bellum regulates when countries can use force in international relations, per the UN Charter.
  • Jus in bello, or international humanitarian law (IHL), governs how wars are fought and focuses on protecting civilians.
  • IHL includes customary international law, Geneva Conventions of 1949, and Additional Protocols of 1977.
  • IHL applies to armed conflicts, whether international or non-international.
  • The conflict between Israel and Hamas falls under non-international armed conflict (NIAC), and both parties must follow IHL.
  • IHL mandates the distinction between combatants and civilians and prohibits indiscriminate attacks.
  • Indiscriminate attacks, like those causing civilian casualties, are illegal.
  • Hostage-taking by Hamas is illegal under the Rome Statute.
  • Israel’s blockade of the Gaza Strip, impacting civilians, constitutes collective punishment and violates IHL.
  • Warring parties must give effective advance warning to civilians before attacks and protect those who can’t evacuate.

The UN approved Kenya-led security mission to Haiti: Page 8

  • UN approved Kenya-led security mission to Haiti.
  • Purpose of the mission: Restore security, protect critical infrastructure, and control violence.
  • Violence in Haiti led to 2,800 deaths, including 80 minors (Oct 2022 – June 2023).
  • Haiti sought international help due to gangs’ control and fuel shortages.
  • Kenya proposed to lead the mission, ending the stalemate.
  • Mission not operated by UN; Kenya leads, with support from other countries.
  • Mission to provide operational support to Haitian National Police, improve security, and secure ports.
  • Forces authorized to make arrests in coordination with Haitian police.
  • Aims to create conditions for elections (last held in 2016).
  • Deployment date not announced; possibly within two to three months.
  • Delay due to Haiti’s past with foreign military interventions, including a troubled UN peacekeeping mission from 2004 to 2017.
  • Skepticism among Haitians about foreign armed forces’ intervention.
  • Concerns about the popularity of Haitian PM Ariel Henry.

Study estimates count of UAVs required for the three Services: Page 10

  • Study conducted on military platforms for three Services.
  • UAV study recommends procurement of 31 MQ-9B HALE UAVs and 155 MALE UAVs.
  • Second study ordered on armoured helicopters.
  • Aim is to optimize platform numbers and avoid duplication.
  • Cost of upgrading Israeli Heron MALE UAVs now likely to be approved.
  • Procurement of 31 MQ-9B UAVs in progress.
  • Army seeks 156 LCH helicopters, awaiting government approval.
  • Procurement of 39 AH-64 Apache attack helicopters already approved.
  • Further Apache procurement for Army dependent on armoured helicopter study outcome.

Sri Lanka moves towards RCEP; Bangladesh in queue: Page 10

  • Sri Lanka and Bangladesh consider joining RCEP trading bloc.
  • Sri Lanka has already applied for RCEP membership and seeks support from China and other nations.
  • Bangladesh’s final decision on RCEP membership expected after January 2024 elections.
  • Both countries in talks with India for updated free trade agreements.
  • Joining RCEP would provide access to the ASEAN-led group comprising China, Japan, South Korea, Australia, and New Zealand.
  • RCEP members aim to eliminate up to 90% of tariffs on goods traded within the bloc within 20 years.
  • India previously withdrew from RCEP talks due to concerns about Chinese goods and other issues.
  • India may be concerned about its neighbors joining RCEP, potentially creating more globally competitive markets.
  • Sri Lanka and Bangladesh are moving away from protectionist policies and seek to become more competitive in international markets.
  • Bangladesh’s potential export earnings could increase by $5 billion by joining RCEP.

Centre likely to raise age of retirement of scientists to 65: Page 12

  • Science Ministry working on proposal to raise retirement age of scientists to 65.
  • Aim is to prevent top scientists from leaving for universities and IITs with a retirement age of 65.
  • Currently, most government scientists retire at 60, while those at ICAR and ICMR retire at 62.
  • Ministry sends note to 14 autonomous bodies for details on scientists nearing retirement and financial implications of increased tenure.
  • Proposal aims to bring parity for Ministry-affiliated scientists and is in early discussion stages.
  • Previous proposal to raise retirement age in 2015 did not materialize; trend had been to offer extensions, but current government opts for short-term contracts instead.

Railways develops anti-freeze flushes and fuel tanks for journeys in J&K: Page 12

  • Unique challenge in maintaining water and fuel in liquid form in sub-zero temperatures for Udhampur-Srinagar-Baramulla Rail Link (USBRL) project.
  • Engineers at Rail Coach Factory (RCF) in Kapurthala developed solutions.
  • Double-walled composite insulated water tanks (450-685 liters) to prevent water freezing for 16-20 hours.
  • Heated pipes with insulation to keep water in pipelines in liquid form (5-8 degrees Celsius).
  • Geysers at toilets for on-demand water heating.
  • Similar technology used in locomotive fuel tanks.
  • Aims to make the 111-km railway stretch from Katra to Banihal functional before the national elections in March.

Kaziranga sanctuary reopens with tribute to British-era officer: Page 12

  • Kaziranga National Park and Tiger Reserve reopens.
  • Tribute to British-era forest officer Patrick D. Stracey.
  • Stracey renamed Kaziranga Game Sanctuary as a wildlife sanctuary in 1950.
  • A nature and wildlife-specific library named after Stracey inaugurated at Centenary Convention Centre in Kohora area.
  • The library offers books, magazines on nature, and merchandise for visitors.
  • Stracey also established the Assam Forest School, a training institute for the northeastern region.
  • Kaziranga is a 1, reserve known for one-horned rhinoceros.

Pakistan, China to ink deals under CPEC during Kakar’s visit: Page 13

  • China and Pakistan to sign agreements on motorways and highways during Anwaarul haq Kakar’s visit to Beijing.
  • Agreements part of the $60 billion China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) program.
  • Kakar participating in the ‘Third Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation’ from October 17 to 18.
  • A significant Memorandum of Understanding to establish a modern Highway Research and Training Centre (HRTC) with China’s assistance.
  • Project a focus of discussions between the Prime Minister and Chinese authorities.

Azerbaijan President raises national flag in Karabakh capital: Page 13

  • President Ilham Aliyev raised Azerbaijan’s flag in Nagorno-Karabakh’s capital, Khankendi (also called Stepanakert by Armenia).
  • Azerbaijan’s military offensive in September led to the region’s capture.
  • Most ethnic Armenians in the territory (approximately 120,000) have since fled to Armenia.
  • President Aliyev had promised to bring Karabakh back under Azerbaijani control during his 20-year presidency.
  • Pope Francis called for the protection of Karabakh’s Christian Armenian monasteries and churches.
  • Dispute over Nagorno-Karabakh, a mainly Armenian-populated region within Azerbaijan, has a history dating back to the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
  • Azerbaijan and Armenia have had two wars over Nagorno-Karabakh, one in the 1990s and another in 2020.

Source: The Hindu Epaper

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