The Hindu PDF 16 November 2023 Analysis

The Hindu PDF 16 November 2023 Newspaper is considered an important source of news and information for UPSC (Union Public Service Commission) aspirants in India. This The Hindu Epaper PDF newspaper covers a wide range of topics that are relevant to the UPSC exam, including politics, economics, international relations, governance, and social issues.

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The Hindu PDF Analysis 16 November 2023 for UPSC

Modi launches mission for most backward of the Scheduled Tribes: Page 1

  • PM Modi launches ₹24,000-crore PM-PVTG Development Mission for Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups.
  • A Viksit Bharat Sankalp Yatra is initiated for government scheme saturation in tribal districts.
  • Focus on reaching 75 PVTGs lacking basic amenities, moving beyond mere classification.
  • Launch includes the 15th instalment of PM-Kisan payout, dedicating projects worth ₹7,000 crore.
  • Projects span IIM campus in Ranchi, developments in coal, railways, roads, petroleum, and natural gas.
  • Remarks made on tribal icon Birsa Munda’s birth anniversary in Jharkhand.
  • Launch coincides with the closing of Assembly election campaigning in Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh.
  • PM emphasizes the need for bringing people together, contrasts with past governments’ focus on counting.
  • Congress and Opposition call for a countrywide caste census, highlighting urgency.
  • PM-PVTG mission involves 11 key interventions in 22,500 villages across 18 States and Union Territories.
  • Key interventions include PM-Gram Sadak Yojana, PM-Gram Awaas Yojana, Jal Jeevan Mission, etc.
  • Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Anna Yojana (PMGKAY) extended for one year from January 1, 2023.
  • Opposition alleges violation of model code of conduct as PM announces extension at election rallies.
  • Decision to extend the scheme expected to be cleared by the Cabinet.

India sees 6.2% rise in goods exports in October: Page 1

  • Goods exports in India increase by 6.2% in October, marking the second uptick this year.
  • Imports surge by 12.3%, reaching a record high of $65.03 billion.
  • Higher imports of gold (up 95.4%) and oil contribute significantly to the import increase.
  • Monthly goods trade deficit expands to an all-time high of $31.46 billion.
  • Despite the growth, the value of October’s outbound shipments, at $33.6 billion, is the lowest since November of the previous year.

Veteran Marxist N. Sankaraiah is no more: Page 4

  • N. Sankaraiah, a veteran Marxist and freedom fighter, passes away in Chennai at the age of 101.
  • One of the senior-most Communist leaders in India, he was a founding member of the Communist Party of India (Marxist).
  • Sankaraiah was admitted to the hospital on November 13 and had been in declining health.
  • Active until 10 days before his death, he sent greetings to the party on November 7 in a recorded message.
  • Born on July 15, 1922, he was among the 32 national council members who left CPI, leading to the formation of CPI(M) in 1964.
  • A three-time MLA, he served as the State secretary of the CPI(M) and was a key figure in the party.
  • Arrested in 1941 while a student, he was involved in a protest supporting students and spent 18 months in jail.
  • Chief Minister M.K. Stalin had announced plans to confer an honorary doctorate on Sankaraiah, which faced opposition from the Governor.
  • In 2021, he was honored with the Thagaisal Thamizhar Award, and he donated the prize money for COVID-19 relief work.
  • Actively participated in the Quit India movement and spent a total of eight years in prison before and after Independence.

Food flux: Page 6

  • October’s consumer price inflation in India at 4.87%, a four-month low, with wholesale prices declining for the seventh consecutive month by 0.5%.
  • Retail inflation slightly lower than September, showing relief for the third successive month from July’s 15-month high pace of over 7.4%.
  • Rural consumers still face higher inflation at 5.1%, while core inflation, excluding energy and food costs, has eased.
  • Household services inflation drops below 4%, and the rise in vegetable prices eases to 2.7% in October.
  • Overall food costs for households remain firm at 6.6%, virtually unchanged from September.
  • Some essential edibles, like pulses (up 18.8%) and cereals (10.7%), contribute to the unchanged food costs.
  • Monetary Policy Committee of the Reserve Bank of India may not be significantly influenced by the October inflation data in its early December review.
  • The average inflation projection for this quarter is 5.6%, down from 6.4% in the previous quarter.
  • November and December may see an average inflation of 5.95%, close to the central bank’s upper tolerance threshold.
  • Base effects from last year and fluctuations in edible oil prices may impact future inflation trends.
  • Consumers, adjusting to rising living costs, remain cautious, posing a challenge for policymakers addressing domestic demand.

Life over death: Page 6

  • Parliamentary committee examining the Bharatiya Nyaya Sanhita (BNS) doesn’t recommend abolishing the death penalty.
  • Instead, committee suggests leaving the matter for the government to consider.
  • Experts and jurists had submitted arguments for abolition, citing the fallibility of the judicial system and lack of deterrent effect.
  • Instances of trial courts awarding death penalties reportedly on the rise, but the Supreme Court leaning away from capital punishment.
  • From 2007 to 2022, the Supreme Court awarded the death penalty to only seven people, and in 2023, all death sentences were set aside or commuted to life.
  • Dissenting members argue that capital punishment is not a deterrent, life imprisonment is a more rigorous punishment allowing reform, and many on death row come from underprivileged backgrounds.
  • Three Bills proposing a new criminal law are seen as substantially the same as existing laws.
  • If Parliament enacts the draft Bills with panel-suggested changes, it’s an opportunity to reconsider retaining the death penalty.
  • BNS defines ‘life imprisonment’ as the remainder of one’s natural life; this should be the default alternative to death sentences.
  • Abolishing the death penalty and introducing a rational, universal remission policy would be a substantive reform in the justice system.

Rajasthan lags behind in women empowerment: Page 7

  • Rajasthan Assembly elections scheduled for November 25, 2023.
  • Rajasthan has shown improvement in social indicators but lags in women empowerment.
  • Notable improvement in health-related indicators, e.g., households with health insurance increased from 18.7% (2015-16) to 87.8% (2019-21).
  • Infant Mortality Rate rankings improved from 24th to 17th, and share of stunted children improved from 25th to 16th out of 30 States.
  • However, challenges persist in women empowerment, with only 63.5% of females aged 6 years and above ever attending school (ranked 28th).
  • Over 25% of women aged 20-24 were married before 18 (ranked 24th out of 40 States).
  • Comparison with 2005-06 data shows limited improvement in women empowerment indicators.
  • Human Development Index (HDI) rankings improved by 7 spots from 27th to 20th between 1990 and 2021.
  • Economic performance is middling, with a slight improvement in rankings from 20th to 18th between 1993-94 and 2021-22.
  • Over 40% of the population in the State belongs to the lowest two wealth quintiles.
  • Manufacturing sector employment and its share in Gross Value Added are relatively low (10% and 7.5% respectively).
  • Mixed progress in educational indicators, with the state ranking in the top half for average annual dropout rate and Gross Enrolment Ratio in higher secondary, and in the bottom half for Adjusted Net Enrolment Ratio in elementary education and Gross Enrolment Ratio in higher education.
  • Mixed progress in environment-related indicators, with lower plastic waste generation (top half) but higher hazardous waste generation (bottom half).

The price of persistent federal frictions: Page 8

  • Increasing frequency and intensity of disputes between the Union government and States in India.
  • Disputes characterized as ‘persistent frictions’ in the federal system, impacting economic relations.
  • Economic reforms since 1991 relaxed controls on investments, but States still depend on the Centre for revenue receipts.
  • Cooperative federalism eroded, leading to hardened stands by both Centre and States, reducing room for negotiation.
  • Conflicts extend beyond resource sharing to social sector policies, regulatory institutions, and powers of central agencies.
  • Centre’s expansion into state activities leads to crowding out of States in terms of investments.
  • Infrastructure development affected, with States’ flexibility in formulating master plans curtailed by centralization.
  • Fiscal competition emerges between Centre and States, impacting welfare provisioning and non-tax revenues.
  • Inefficiencies arise from ‘parallel policies,’ where either the Centre or States duplicate each other’s policies.
  • Trust deficit in the federal system contributes to the emergence of parallel schemes with long-run consequences.
  • Inevitable interdependence between Centre and States for implementing laws and policies, particularly in concurrent spheres.

Why are IAS coaching centres being probed by the CCPA?: Page 8

  • Central Consumer Protection Authority (CCPA) is probing 20 IAS coaching institutes for misleading claims and unfair trade practices.
  • Four institutes have been fined ₹1 lakh each—Chahal Academy, IQRA IAS, Rau’s IAS Study Circle, and IAS Baba.
  • UPSC recommended 933 candidates in 2022, but institutes claimed over 3,500 selections, raising concerns about multiple enrolments.
  • Coaching institutes often use top rankers’ names and pictures in ads without disclosing the nature of their enrolment.
  • CCPA observed that many rank holders only took mock interviews from these institutes, often provided free of cost.
  • Exaggerated claims in the education sector, especially in leadership, placements, and success assurances, are a concern.
  • Coaching class market in India expected to reach ₹1.79 lakh crore by 2030, growing at a CAGR of 14.07%.
  • Higher education holds the largest market share (32.75% in 2022), with migration contributing to the demand for coaching services.

Edinburgh to Kozhikode: how Kerala got onto UNESCO’s City of Literature list: Page 9

  • Kozhikode is India’s first City of Literature, recognized by UNESCO.
  • The Kerala Literature Festival (KLF), held annually on Kozhikode beach, is a prominent literary event attracting massive footfall.
  • Kozhikode’s rich literary heritage includes renowned writers like M.T. Vasudevan Nair, Vaikom Muhammad Basheer, and S.K. Pottekkatt.
  • The city has a vibrant theatre tradition, several publishing houses, libraries, and bookshops.
  • Kozhikode’s love for literature is evident during the KLF, where large crowds engage with authors in lively sessions.
  • UNESCO’s recognition is a result of the city’s literary culture, literature festivals like KLF, numerous libraries, and publishing activities.
  • The city has produced legendary authors, scriptwriters, and contributors to Malayalam cinema.
  • Kozhikode is known for its love of music, football, and food, with a wide array of eateries catering to different tastes.
  • The city’s rich cultural heritage extends to serious readers and thriving publishing houses across Kerala.

FATF team in India to hold on-site review meetings: Page 10

  • FATF team in India for mutual evaluations on anti-money laundering and counter-terrorist financing efforts
  • On-site visit in Delhi, lasting around two weeks
  • Meetings with senior government officials and private sector representatives
  • Team includes FATF Secretariat officials and domain experts
  • Potential meetings with Department of Revenue, enforcement agencies, and financial regulators
  • Mumbai visit also likely; may engage with civil society representatives
  • Mutual evaluations involve peer reviews by experts from different countries
  • Country provides relevant laws and regulations to assessment team
  • Assessors analyze technical compliance with FATF standards
  • Draft report prepared, focusing on on-site visit areas
  • Final report, covering technical compliance and effectiveness, discussed in FATF plenary
  • Report on India may be discussed in June 2024 Plenary

Proposed criminal code gives more immunity to defence personnel: Page 10

  • The Bharatiya Nagarik Suraksha Sanhita (BNSS) Bill, 2023, intended to replace the Code of Criminal Procedure (CrPC), offers increased immunity to armed forces personnel.
  • Under the proposed law, no case can be registered against armed forces personnel for acts performed in the line of duty without the prior consent of the Union or the State government.
  • This provision is in addition to the existing protection provided by the Armed Forces Special Powers Act (AFSPA), which grants extensive powers to the armed forces deployed in “disturbed areas.”
  • The BNSS modernizes the court structure by eliminating British-era designations, simplifying the court system, and empowering the Union government to appoint Public Prosecutors for proceedings in the National Capital Territory of Delhi.
  • The proposed law also allows the service of summons on any adult family member, including women, in the absence of the person to be summoned to promote gender parity.

IMEC a ‘win-win situation’ for all States involved: Finance Minister: Page 12

  • Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman highlighted the India-Middle East-Europe Economic Corridor (IMEC) as a “win-win situation” for all involved states, although acknowledging geopolitical challenges, including the conflict in Israel and Gaza.
  • Navy Chief Admiral R. Hari Kumar emphasized the fragile security situation in the South China Sea, stating that violations of established Codes of Conduct pose a clear danger to good order and discipline at sea.
  • Vice-President Jagdeep Dhankhar expressed India’s desire for a free, peaceful, rule-based Indo-Pacific region and stressed the need for freedom of navigation, overflight, and a just global regulatory regime for the sustainable exploitation of marine resources.
  • Dhankhar highlighted the importance of collaborative security and innovative partnerships for addressing challenges in the Indo-Pacific region.
  • Nirmala Sitharaman emphasized that the IMEC would enhance transportation efficiency, reduce logistics costs, increase economic unity, generate employment, and contribute to a cleaner, safer world by lowering greenhouse gas emissions.

‘Greenhouse gases hit record high in 2022’: Page 13

  • Greenhouse gas concentrations reached record highs in 2022.
  • The three main greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide) all broke records.
  • United Nations World Meteorological Organization issued the warning.
  • Continuous rise in these gases indicates further temperature increases, extreme weather, and higher sea levels.
  • WMO’s 19th annual Greenhouse Gas Bulletin highlighted the concerning trend.
  • Despite warnings and climate conferences, the world is moving in the “wrong direction.”
  • The 2015 Paris Agreement aimed to cap global warming at “well below” 2o C, preferably 1.5o C.
  • Global mean temperature in 2022 was 1.15o C above the 1850-1900 average.
  • WMO chief Petteri Taalas predicts 2023 to be the warmest year on record.

Gold drives trade deficit to new high: Page 14

  • India’s monthly goods trade deficit reached a new high of $31.46 billion.
  • Previous record: $29.23 billion in September 2022.
  • Goods exports in October grew by 6.2% to $33.6 billion, the second increase in 2023-24.
  • Imports surged to a record high of $65.03 billion, a 12.3% increase over the previous year.
  • Increase in imports attributed to higher gold inflows, up 95.4% to $7.2 billion.
  • Overall merchandise exports between April and October 2023 at nearly $245 billion, 7% below the same period last year.
  • Lower prices for some commodities compared to the previous year impacted overall shipment values.
  • Other contributing factors to the record import bill: oil, electronics, gems and jewelry.
  • Manufacturing imports like chemicals, machinery, and base metals are also showing buoyancy.
  • Trade deficit widening primarily due to imports, expected to normalize in the next month.

NASA ISRO prepare to launch joint space mission: SCIENCE Page II

  • Joint mission: NASA-ISRO Synthetic Aperture Radar (NISAR).
  • Launch set for the first quarter of 2024, not earlier than January.
  • Testing, including vibration tests, ongoing at Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Sriharikota.
  • NISAR is a low-earth orbit observatory jointly developed by ISRO and NASA.
  • Three-year mission to survey Earth’s land and ice-covered surfaces every 12 days.
  • Provides consistent data on ecosystems, ice mass, vegetation, biomass, sea-level rise, groundwater, and natural hazards.
  • Vibration testing underway, followed by other performance tests, including battery and simulation tests.
  • NISAR mission described as “better than anything flown in the past” by NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory Director Laurie Leshin.
  • Capable of revealing dynamics of carbon storage, ice sheet response to climate change, and interaction of sea ice and climate.
  • Equipped with a synthetic aperture radar in two frequencies and an antenna reflector.
  • Size: SUV, Mass: 2.8 tonnes, Powered by solar panels.
  • Six-foot spacecraft bus hosts command and communication systems for the payload.
  • Enough fuel for at least five years of operations.

Source: The Hindu Epaper

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