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The Hindu PDF 12 December 2023 Analysis


The Hindu PDF 12 December 2023 Newspaper is considered an important source of news and information for UPSC (Union Public Service Commission) aspirants in India. This The Hindu Epaper PDF newspaper covers a wide range of topics that are relevant to the UPSC exam, including politics, economics, international relations, governance, and social issues.

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The Hindu Epaper Analysis 12 December 2023 for UPSC

SC upholds repeal of J&K’s special status: Page 1

  • SC upholds the repeal of J&K’s special status
  • Upholds the power of the President to abrogate Article 370
  • President can unilaterally issue a notification to cease Article 370 if special circumstances exist
  • Decision in 2019 was a culmination of a gradual and collaborative exercise over 70 years to integrate J&K with the Union
  • J&K Constitution declared “redundant” and “inoperative”
  • Centre assures restoration of Statehood to J&K “at the earliest”
  • Election Commission directed to hold Assembly polls by September 30, 2024
  • The court does not examine the permissibility of reorganizing the state into two Union Territories
  • Upholds the carving out of the Union Territory of Ladakh from J&K
  • The dissolution of the J&K State Legislative Assembly and the subsequent President’s rule did not deter the court
  • J&K divested itself of “any element of sovereignty” after the Instrument of Accession to the Union in October 1947

BJP springs a surprise, picks Mohan Yadav as new Madhya Pradesh CM: Page 1

  • BJP selects Mohan Yadav as the new Chief Minister of Madhya Pradesh
  • Mohan Yadav is from the Other Backward Classes (OBC)
  • Two Deputy Chief Ministers named: Jagdish Devda (Dalit) and Rajendra Shukla (Brahmin)
  • OBCs constitute about 52% of the state’s population, and Scheduled Castes make up nearly 17%
  • Former Union Minister Narendra Singh Tomar chosen as the next Assembly Speaker
  • Shivraj Singh Chouhan proposed Mohan Yadav’s name at the BJP Legislature Party meet
  • Decision made in the presence of BJP’s Central observers: Manohar Lal Khattar, K. Lakshman, and Asha Lakra
  • Mohan Yadav meets Governor Mangubhai Patel and stakes claim to form the government
  • Swearing-in ceremony expected after December 13, depending on confirmation from the Prime Minister
  • Mohan Yadav, a three-term MLA, to replace Shivraj Singh Chouhan, who held the top post since 2005
  • Yadav won the recent Assembly elections from Ujjain Dakshin by 12,941 votes
  • He held the Higher Education portfolio in the incumbent government and served as the chairperson of the Madhya Pradesh Tourism Development Corporation from 2011 to 2013.

Harvest the Odisha story to ensure food security: Page 8

  • COP28 (2023 UN Climate Conference): Leaders meet in Dubai, climate crisis impact highlighted.
  • Odisha’s Model for Food Security:
  • Themes: Agricultural transformation, resilience to climate impact, social protection.
  • Agricultural Transformation in Odisha:
  • Shift from importing rice to 13.606 million tonnes production in 2022.
  • Notable: Majority small farmers, tripled average rice yield in two decades.
  • Resilience and Sustainability:
  • Comprehensive Climate Change Action Plan in Odisha.
  • Bottom-up approach, Crop Weather Watch Group monitors adverse weather.
  • Adoption of climate-resilient practices, integrated farming, and water management.
  • Social Protection:
  • Odisha surplus in paddy production, collaboration with UN World Food Programme.
  • Top-ranked state in National Food Security Act State Ranking Index 2022.
  • Conclusion: Odisha’s journey offers a unique development model amidst global climate change challenges.

Decoding Putin’s dramatic visit to the Gulf: Page 9

  • Vladimir Putin’s dramatic visit to Abu Dhabi and Riyadh on December 6.
  • Also received Iranian President Ebrahim Raisi in Moscow on the next day.
  • Announced candidacy for elections in 2024, intending to lead Russia at least until 2030.
  • Talks in the Gulf focused on OPEC+ cooperation, Ukraine and Gaza conflicts, humanitarian aid to Palestinians in Gaza, and bilateral ties.
  • UAE and Saudi Arabia, despite historical ties with the U.S., assert “strategic autonomy” and prioritize relations with China and Russia.
  • UAE is now Russia’s most important trade partner in the Gulf.
  • Both Gulf nations have not supported U.S.-sponsored sanctions on Russia or criticized Russia for the Ukraine war.
  • Growing cooperation between Russia and UAE, particularly in technology.
  • Iran and Russia, facing western sanctions, are building substantial bilateral relations in energy and military areas.
  • During Raisi’s visit to Moscow, discussions on Gaza war, Ukraine, and oil prices.
  • Putin’s visit seen as a message that Russia is not isolated and has close friends in the Gulf.
  • Putin may have sought to assure Gulf states that the Gaza war will not spread and Iran will help maintain regional stability.
  • Sought deeper alignment between Gulf Cooperation Council states and Iran, presenting Russia and China as guarantors of regional peace.
  • Putin projected Russia as complementing China’s diplomatic role in the region.
  • Sought support for a united regional alignment, excluding the U.S., in managing post-Gaza war scenarios.
  • Putin assured continuity in Russia’s regional approach and hinted at seeking re-election in 2024.

Can Bihar increase its reservation pool?: Page IO

  • Bihar has approved two laws increasing reservations in jobs and education to 75%, surpassing the 50% limit set by the Supreme Court.
  • Reservation breakdown: 20% for Scheduled Castes, 2% for Scheduled Tribes, 18% for Other Backward Classes, 25% for Extremely Backward Classes, and 10% for economically weaker sections (EWS).
  • Supreme Court historically maintains a 50% cap on reservations but allows exceptions for exceptional circumstances.
  • The 103rd Constitutional Amendment allows states to reserve a total of 60% seats/posts, including EWS reservations.
  • Bihar government conducted a caste-based census, and the laws are based on the census results.
  • Bihar government justifies the breach of the 50% limit by citing the results of the caste census.
  • Chief Minister Nitish Kumar stated the intent is to increase reservations based on caste population, but the Supreme Court emphasizes “adequate” representation, not proportionate representation.
  • Other states that have exceeded the 50% limit: Chhattisgarh (72%), Tamil Nadu (69%), several northeastern states (80% each), and Lakshadweep (100% for Scheduled Tribes).
  • Previous attempts by Maharashtra and Rajasthan to exceed the limit were struck down by the courts.
  • The validity of Bihar’s laws is likely to be challenged in the Supreme Court, raising the question of whether the court will reconsider the 50% ceiling limit.

What are FSB’s concerns about crypto asset intermediaries?: Page 10

  • FSB’s concerns about crypto-asset intermediaries (MCIs) focus on enhancing cross-border cooperation and information sharing among local authorities to regulate and address gaps.
  • The report highlights potential risks associated with MCIs that combine different activities within the platform, citing the FTX collapse in November 2022.
  • MCIs are defined as firms offering a range of crypto-based services, products, and functions, primarily centered around operating a trading platform, such as Binance, Bitfinex, and Coinbase.
  • Traditional financial functions are typically provided by separate entities to prevent conflicts of interest and promote market integrity, investor protection, and financial stability.
  • MCIs aspire to be “one-stop shops” for crypto-based services, extending beyond trading to include prepaid debit cards, lending, and other services.
  • Lack of transparency in MCIs’ corporate structure and private ownership hinders understanding of their vulnerabilities, economic models, and activities.
  • Limited publicly disclosed information, with much coming from press coverage, court filings, and regulatory actions, makes oversight challenging.
  • Poor risk management in MCIs may facilitate insider misconduct that magnifies vulnerabilities.
  • Lack of transparency could hide risks from ineffective governance or an unprofitable business model until negative shocks materialize.
  • Recent experiences with the failure or closure of crypto-asset-friendly banks reveal concentrated deposit exposures to firms relying on crypto assets.
  • The threat to global financial stability and the real economy from MCI failure is currently deemed “limited,” but evidence suggests potential spillover effects, as seen in the Silvergate Bank case in March.

President’s actions during State Emergency open to scrutiny: SC: Page 12

  • Supreme Court’s stance on State Emergency and President’s actions
  • Declaration of State Emergency under Article 356 should have a “reasonable nexus”
  • Petitioners can question the President’s object in declaring a State Emergency in Jammu and Kashmir in December 2018
  • Crisis triggered by Chief Minister Mehbooba Mufti’s resignation in June 2018 after BJP withdrew support
  • Governor issued a Proclamation under Section 92, assuming powers in case of a failure of constitutional machinery
  • President invoked Article 356 based on the Governor’s report in November 2018
  • President’s rule extended on July 3, 2019
  • On August 5, 2019, President issued the Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir) Order, applying Indian Constitution and amending Article 370
  • Parliament abrogated provisions of Article 370 and reorganized the State on the same day
  • Question arises whether the object of the Article 356 proclamation in December 2018 has a “reasonable nexus” with the actions in August 2019
  • Actions of the President during State Emergency subject to judicial scrutiny
  • Chief Justice Chandrachud emphasizes the onus on the challenger to establish “mala fide or extraneous exercise of power”
  • If a prima facie case is made, the onus shifts to the Centre to justify the reasonable nexus with the object of the President’s Rule proclamation under Article 356.

‘SC verdict has strengthened the spirit of Ek Bharat, Shreshtha Bharat’: Page 13

  • Supreme Court’s historic judgment on abrogation of Articles 370 and 35(A)
  • Upholding sovereignty and integrity of India
  • Decision on August 5, 2019, aimed at enhancing constitutional integration, not disintegration
  • Recognition that Article 370 was not permanent
  • Jammu, Kashmir, and Ladakh witnessed violence and instability for seven decades
  • Society’s confusion and duality due to economic and mental subjugation
  • Ideological framework focused on addressing societal aspirations
  • Efforts to remove injustice and betrayal to the people of Jammu and Kashmir
  • Articles 370 and 35(A) seen as major obstacles to development
  • Focus on three pillars: understanding citizens’ concerns, building trust, and prioritizing development
  • Significant steps taken for Jammu and Kashmir’s development, including a special package in 2015
  • Power of sports harnessed for youth transformation
  • Panchayat polls as a watershed moment for all-round development
  • August 5, 2019, marked a historic decision to abrogate Article 370, leading to positive changes
  • Four years of development across Jammu, Kashmir, and Ladakh, with a thumbs up from the people
  • Renewed faith in grassroots democracy, improved representation for women, tribal people, SCs, STs, and marginalized sections
  • Implementation of key Central government schemes, infrastructure development, and tourism boost
  • People’s dreams no longer prisoners of the past; possibilities for the future
  • Supreme Court’s verdict on December 11 strengthens the spirit of “Ek Bharat, Shreshtha Bharat”
  • Bonds of unity and commitment to good governance define the nation’s identity
  • Every child born in Jammu, Kashmir, and Ladakh has a future full of vibrant aspirations
  • Development, democracy, and dignity replace disillusionment, disappointment, and despondency.

Draft climate deal fails to ‘phase out’ fossil fuel: Page 15

  • Expectations of a ‘phase out’ of fossil fuels in climate talks in Dubai
  • Latest draft removes the phrase ‘phase out’ but emphasizes a “rapid phase down unabated coal”
  • Stronger language against coal, potentially objectionable to countries like India, Indonesia, and China
  • Observers note any mention of the need to eliminate fossil fuels would be a significant step
  • Current text urges countries to “reduce both consumption and production of fossil fuels” to achieve net zero by around 2050
  • Fossil fuel burning contributes nearly 80% of greenhouse gas emissions, with coal accounting for about 40%
  • Humanity’s best chance at limiting global temperature increase is by cutting emissions to 43% of 2019 levels by 2030
  • Emissions are increasing despite pledges to enhance renewable energy infrastructure
  • Some criticize the text as a regression, dropping explicit language on phasing out fossil fuels
  • Perception that the influence of the petro-state hosting the conference may have affected the wording of the text
  • Recognition that including the term “fossil fuel” in the draft decision is a notable change and a potential beginning of the end of the fossil fuel era.

Retail inflation is stable now: FM: Page 16

  • Retail inflation in India is now considered “stable” and within the official tolerance band of 2% to 6%.
  • Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman informs the Lok Sabha that retail inflation has decreased from an average of 7.1% (April-October 2022) to 5.4% (April-October 2023).
  • Core inflation (excluding food and energy costs) has also declined from 5.1% (April 2023) to 4.3% (October 2023).
  • Temporary increases in inflation were attributed to demand-supply mismatches due to global shocks and adverse weather conditions.
  • The government and the Reserve Bank of India addressed such mismatches and controlled inflation through supply-side initiatives and demand stabilization measures.
  • Retail inflation has been mostly within acceptable limits since the introduction of the tolerance band in 2016.
  • Steady decline in core inflation has been crucial in reducing inflationary pressure in the Indian economy.
  • Government measures to control inflation include easing food imports, preventing hoarding, extending the free food grain scheme, and raising LPG subsidy.
  • November’s retail inflation numbers are awaited, and there may be a spike due to an uptick in vegetable prices, as indicated by the RBI.

Source: The Hindu Epaper

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