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The Hindu PDF 10 December 2023 Analysis

The Hindu PDF GKGSCA

The Hindu PDF 10 December 2023 Newspaper is considered an important source of news and information for UPSC (Union Public Service Commission) aspirants in India. This The Hindu Epaper PDF newspaper covers a wide range of topics that are relevant to the UPSC exam, including politics, economics, international relations, governance, and social issues.

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The Hindu Epaper Analysis 10 December 2023 for UPSC

Green turtles nesting range expands under warming climate: Page 11

  • Green Turtles and Climate Change:
  • Rising global temperatures may expand green turtle nesting range in the Mediterranean Sea.
  • Study in Scientific Reports highlights potential nesting range increase by over 60%.
  • Worst-case climate scenario predicts westward expansion, covering North African, Italian, and Greek coastlines.
  • Climate Impact on Sea Turtles:
  • Human-caused climate change raises global sea surface temperatures.
  • Green turtles, particularly vulnerable, as offspring sex depends on incubation temperature.
  • Limited research on green turtle population (Chelonia mydas) in the Mediterranean.
  • Research Methodology:
  • Model developed to predict suitability of Mediterranean coastline for green turtle nesting.
  • Evaluation against 178 confirmed nesting locations (1982-2019), mainly in Turkey and Cyprus.
  • Sea surface temperature, sea salinity, and human population density key factors affecting nesting site suitability.
  • Greenhouse Gas Emission Scenarios:
  • Four greenhouse gas emission scenarios considered for the year 2100.
  • Worse climate scenarios associated with greater nesting range increases in the Mediterranean.
  • Potential Nesting Range Expansion:
  • Under worst-case scenario, nesting range increases by 62.4% points.
  • Expansion includes North African coastline (Algeria), much of Italy and Greece, and south Adriatic Sea.
  • Concerns and Warnings:
  • Warning about increased human contact due to expanded nesting range.
  • Central and western Mediterranean, with higher human population, may negatively impact nesting success.

Why did Michaung bring so much rain?: Page 12

  • Formation of Cyclone Michaung:
  • Identified as a well-marked low pressure area in the southwest Bay of Bengal on November 29.
  • Expected progression: depression by November 30, deep depression by December 2, and cyclonic storm by December 3.
  • IMD forecasted its movement towards coastal Andhra Pradesh, bringing rain to north Tamil Nadu on December 3-4.
  • Named ‘Michaung’ on December 3 as it became cyclonic.
  • Path and Impact in Tamil Nadu:
  • Approached north Tamil Nadu, affecting Chennai, Kancheepuram, Thiruvallur, and Chengalpattu.
  • Rainfall and strong winds, leading to localised flooding and power cuts.
  • State government declared public holiday on December 4-5 due to forecasted heavy showers.
  • Intensification and Factors:
  • Intensified into a super-cyclonic storm on December 4.
  • Cyclones use warm sea surface as ‘fuel’; Michaung spent more time over the warm sea, contributing to intensification.
  • Climate change conducive to cyclone intensification.
  • Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) on December 3 maintained favorable conditions for rain formation, assisting intensification.
  • Significance of Intensification:
  • Cyclones draw heat from the sea, intensification enhances this process.
  • Study (May 2020) indicates a 15% increase in tropical cyclones with wind speeds over 185 km/hr since 1979.
  • Intensification complicates forecast models, allows storms to make landfall with more energy, and brings devastation to new areas.
  • Landfall and Dissipation:
  • Crossed over land south of Bapatla district in Andhra Pradesh on December 5.
  • Heavy rain and winds with sustained speed of 90-100 km/hr.
  • Storm weakened into a cyclonic storm after landfall.
  • By December 6, devolved into a well-marked low-pressure area.

What does a special package mean for PVTGs?: Page 12

  • PVTGs Population Status:
  • Tribal Affairs Ministry reported to Rajya Sabha that PVTGs population is not in decline, contrary to State-wise Census data showing a 40% fall in nine States/UTs in the first decade of the century.
  • PVTGs defined as tribal communities with declining or stagnant population, using pre-agrarian technology, economically backward, and low literacy.
  • 75 such communities in 18 States and UTs, with the highest number in Odisha (15), Andhra Pradesh (12), Bihar and Jharkhand (9).
  • PM-JANMAN Scheme Overview:
  • ₹24,000 crore Pradhan Mantri-Janjati Adivasi Nyaya Maha Abhiyan approved by Cabinet.
  • Aims to provide basic facilities like roads, power, homes, mobile connectivity, etc., to the Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs).
  • Finance Minister announced PM-PVTG Development Mission during Budget Session with a planned ₹15,000 crore expenditure over three years.
  • Package Allocation and Implementation:
  • ₹24,104 crore allocated; central share ₹15,336 crore, State share ₹8,768 crore.
  • Implementation in 22,000 villages where PVTGs reside.
  • Nine ministries involved in program implementation.
  • Goals include building pucca homes, connecting roads, piped water, mobile medical units, anganwadi centers, multipurpose centers, hostels, mobile towers, vocational training centers, Van Dhan Vikas Kendras, off-grid solar power systems, and solar street lights.
  • Challenges and Data Issues:
  • Lack of current data is a significant challenge.
  • The government lacks accurate and current population data for PVTGs; estimates population around 28 lakh.
  • Baseline surveys conducted to understand village needs, but no results made public.
  • The Ministry of Tribal Affairs is yet to compile an accurate and current dataset of PVTGs’ populations.
  • No separate Census for PVTGs since 1951; National Advisory Council (NAC) in 2013 recommended a specific Census for PVTG communities.

Are crimes against women on the rise?: Page 12

  • Crimes Against Women in 2022:
  • Crime rate declined in 2022 (258.1 per lakh population), but crimes against women increased by 4% compared to 2021.
  • National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) annual report released on December 4.
  • Nature of Crimes Against Women:
  • Majority of crimes: cruelty by husband or his relatives (31.4%), kidnapping and abduction (19.2%), assault on women with intent to outrage her modesty (18.7%), and rape (7.1%).
  • 13,479 cases registered under Dowry Prohibition Act.
  • Factors Contributing to Crimes:
  • Activists and lawyers attribute to a patriarchal society.
  • Despite education, unchanged male mindsets and societal attitudes.
  • Strengthening of regressive value systems in recent years.
  • Increase in Registration of Crimes:
  • Over 4.45 lakh cases of crimes against women registered in 2022.
  • Equivalent to nearly 51 FIRs every hour.
  • Rate of crimes against women per lakh population: 66.4.
  • Challenges in law implementation contribute to the increase.
  • Key Laws for Women’s Safety:
  • The Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956.
  • The Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961.
  • The Commission of Sati (Prevention) Act, 1987.
  • Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005.
  • The Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace Act, 2013.
  • The Indecent Representation of Women (Prohibition) Act, 1986.
  • Challenges in Law Implementation:
  • Shoddy police investigations and time delays in delivering justice.
  • Lack of trained police officers, particularly in investigations.
  • Slow court proceedings; cases take four to five years at trial courts.
  • Disproportionate workload on women police personnel due to low representation (11.7%).
  • High pendency in courts due to limited workforce.

The Grand Vizier of COP-28: Page 13

  • Sultan Ahmed Al Jaber – COP-28 President:
  • President of COP-28, UAE’s Industry Minister, and CEO of Abu Dhabi National Oil.
  • Believes his energy sector experience enables him to involve more industrialists in climate talks.
  • Aims to bring industrialists to the table at COP and commit to a timeline to phase out fossil fuels.
  • COP-28 Overview:
  • Conference of Parties (COP-28) held in Dubai.
  • Theme focused on climate change, with pavilions hosting conferences, exhibits, food courts, and more.
  • Role of Sultan Ahmed Al Jaber:
  • As the President of COP-28, plays the role of Persuader-in-Chief.
  • Tasked with getting heads of state and ministers to find common ground on climate change.
  • UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) addresses rising greenhouse gas emissions.
  • UNFCCC and COP Meetings:
  • UNFCCC in force since 1994, involving 194 countries acknowledging the threat of rising greenhouse gas emissions.
  • Classification of countries as ‘Annex’ and ‘Non-Annex,’ with financial responsibilities for clean energy development.
  • Annual COP meetings aim to reach agreements on addressing climate change goals.
  • President’s Responsibilities:
  • President ensures observance of rules, works with delegations for consensus on key issues.
  • President-designate spends a year raising global ambition to tackle climate change.
  • Develops a vision for the best possible outcome of the meeting.
  • Expected to maintain neutrality and rise above national constraints for the greater UNFCCC good.
  • Controversy Surrounding Sultan Ahmed Al Jaber:
  • Criticism due to his position as CEO of Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC), a major oil company.
  • Concerns raised about his ability to further the elimination of fossil fuels.
  • Critics suggest potential conflict of interest, as the fossil fuel industry contributes to a significant portion of annual emissions (around 60%).

China consumer prices fall fastest in 3 years: Page 14

  • Consumer Prices in China:
  • Consumer prices in China fell the fastest in three years in November.
  • Consumer Price Index (CPI) dropped 0.5% year-on-year and compared with October.
  • Deeper than median forecasts, indicating rising deflationary pressures.
  • Factors Behind Consumer Price Decline:
  • Weak domestic demand casts doubt over the economic recovery.
  • Three main factors contributing to the decline: falling global energy prices, fading winter travel boom, and chronic supply glut.
  • Year-on-year core inflation (excluding food and fuel prices) was 0.6%.
  • Policy Concerns and Outlook:
  • Data is alarming for policymakers, raising concerns about downward pressure in 2024.
  • Calls for further policy support to shore up growth.
  • China’s central bank Governor Pan Gongsheng suggested inflation was expected to be “going upwards,” despite recent data.
  • Producer Price Index (PPI):
  • PPI fell 3% year-on-year in November, marking the 14th straight month of decline.
  • Quickest decline since August, with economists predicting a 2.8% fall.
  • Economic Challenges in China:
  • Multiple headwinds in 2023, including local government debt, an ailing housing market, and tepid demand.
  • Chinese consumers tightening purse strings amid uncertainties in the economic recovery.
  • Moody’s issued a downgrade warning on China’s credit rating, citing costs to bail out local governments and control the property crisis.

Source: The Hindu Epaper

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