The Hindu PDF 05 October 2023 Analysis

The Hindu PDF Newspaper is considered an important source of news and information for UPSC (Union Public Service Commission) aspirants in India. This The Hindu Epaper PDF newspaper covers a wide range of topics that are relevant to the UPSC exam, including politics, economics, international relations, governance, and social issues.

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The Hindu PDF Analysis 05 October 2023 for UPSC

Trio wins Chemistry Nobel for ‘quantum dots’: Page 1

  • 2023 Nobel Prize in Chemistry awarded to Alexei Ekimov, Louis Brus, and Moungi Bawendi.
  • Awarded for their work on quantum dots, very small crystals with unique properties.
  • Quantum dots have applications in LED screens, quantum computers, flexible electronics, sensors, solar cells, and encrypted quantum communication.
  • Quantum dots are nanoscale crystals with a few thousand atoms, and their properties are influenced by quantum mechanics.
  • When light is shined on quantum dots, they absorb and re-emit it at different colors depending on their size.
  • Dr. Ekimov and Dr. Brus synthesized the first quantum dots in glass and liquid in the early 1980s, demonstrating their ability to fluoresce light of different colors.
  • Dr. Bawendi and his team developed a method in 1993 to consistently synthesize high-quality quantum dots by injecting a compound into a specific solvent and heating the solution, resulting in nanocrystals with smooth shapes.
  • The Nobel Committee inadvertently revealed the winners’ names in an email, breaking with tradition.
  • Quantum dots are expected to have a significant impact on various technological advancements.

Let there be light: Page 8

  • Anne L’Huillier, Pierre Agostini, and Ferenc Krausz awarded the 2023 physics Nobel Prize.
  • Recognized for building tools to study rapid changes in electron properties according to quantum mechanics.
  • Dr. L’Huillier’s research found that an infrared beam on noble gas produced multiple overtones with peculiar relationships.
  • The reinforcing effect of these overtones could be timed to emit intense peaks in attoseconds.
  • Dr. Agostini demonstrated the production of light with a pulse duration of 250 attoseconds in 2001.
  • Dr. Krausz isolated a single pulse of 650 attoseconds and used it to measure the kinetic energy of electrons from krypton atoms.
  • Attosecond physics has potential applications in biochemistry, diagnostics, superconductivity, and manufacturing techniques.
  • The Nobel Committee recognizes the value of making difficult tasks easier, as it often leads to unforeseen applications.

Keeping tabs on carbon with an accounting system: Page 8

  • The climate ‘polycrisis’ refers to interconnected crises related to climate change affecting various sectors and domains.
  • It includes physical impacts like rising temperatures, sea-level rise, and extreme weather, along with social, economic, and political challenges.
  • India illustrates how different sectors such as energy, infrastructure, health, migration, and food production are interconnected and impacted by climate change.
  • A holistic approach is needed, considering diverse perspectives and priorities while ensuring resilience, equity, and justice.
  • Tweaking one aspect of the climate challenge can lead to unexpected consequences elsewhere.
  • A deep transformation towards a carbon-sensitive economy is necessary, similar to digital infrastructure’s impact.
  • Measurement is crucial, starting from individual carbon emissions to the national level.
  • National Carbon Accounting (NCA) is proposed, bringing the entire nation under one carbon accounting framework.
  • This approach can lead to carbon tax returns, revolutionizing public finance and incentivizing carbon reduction.
  • Carbon accounting, like financial accounting, makes carbon visible and facilitates tracking carbon inflows and outflows.
  • NCA enables setting targets, predicting emission reductions, and tracking progress.
  • A national carbon budget can help re-imagine the economy and align it with ecological sustainability.
  • NCA can help India achieve its net-zero commitment by 2070 and create new livelihoods and economic structures.
  • It fosters transparency in carbon footprints and aligns development with ecological sustainability.

The impact of the Bihar caste survey: Page 10

  • Bihar government published the ‘Bihar Caste-based Survey 2022.’
  • EBCs and OBCs together constitute nearly 63% of the state’s population.
  • Chief Minister Nitish Kumar belongs to the OBC Kurmi caste.
  • The demand for a caste survey was raised in 2019.
  • The Bihar legislature passed resolutions for a caste census in 2019 and 2020.
  • An all-party delegation urged Prime Minister Modi for a caste census in 2021, but the Union government declined.
  • Bihar government conducted the caste survey on its own, allocating ₹500 crore.
  • The survey involved 2.64 lakh enumerators documenting details of 29 million households.
  • 214 castes were included in the survey, segmented into 17 points to analyze the socio-economic profile.
  • EBCs (112 castes) form 36.01% of the population, and OBCs (29 castes) make up 27.12%.
  • Yadavs are the dominant caste within OBCs with a 14.26% share.
  • Scheduled Castes constitute 19.65% of the population, and general unreserved population is 15.52%.
  • The report may lead to an increase in reservation quotas in Bihar.
  • The BJP leaders criticized the survey, while RJD and others support it.
  • The caste survey may impact the demand to remove the 50% ceiling on reservations.
  • It may also influence the Women’s Reservation Act and OBC reservation within it.
  • Political experts predict the survey will revive Mandal vs. Kamandal politics in the State.
  • The survey may result in the announcement of more welfare schemes for marginalized sections.
  • The release of the socio-economic profile is awaited during the winter session of the State legislature.

In first election since 2019, Ladakh queues up, registers 77.61% voting: Page 13

  • The fifth Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council-Kargil (LAHDC-K) elections saw a high turnout of 77.61%.
  • These are the first elections in Ladakh since it became a Union Territory in 2019.
  • In 2018, the turnout was around 70%, indicating a significant increase.
  • There are 85 candidates vying for the 26-member Hill Council, with Congress having the most candidates at 22, followed by 17 each from the National Conference (NC) and the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP).
  • The BJP faces a tough challenge against the NC-Congress combine.
  • 24 candidates are running as Independents.
  • Kargil has a population of 1.08 lakh and around 65,878 voters, with a Shia Muslim majority.
  • Kaksar village, which saw dislocation during the 1999 Kargil war due to Pakistani shelling, welcomed the ceasefire agreement between India and Pakistan.
  • Some residents expressed discontent with the separation of Kargil from Kashmir and called for the return of Statehood and Article 370 provisions.
  • Voters in Kargil expressed a desire for a strong Hill Council that improves the education sector by establishing more professional colleges.
  • In Hunderman, residents noted concerns about the water crisis due to decreased snowfall.

New defence indigenisation list has futuristic weapons, systems: Page 14

  • Defence Minister Rajnath Singh released the fifth Positive Indigenisation List of 98 items.
  • These items are to be procured by the three Services from domestic sources.
  • The list emphasizes import substitution for components of major systems, platforms, weapon systems, sensors, and munitions.
  • It is the result of consultations with stakeholders in the Department of Military Affairs.
  • The Navy’s updated indigenisation roadmap, “Swavlamban 2.0,” was also released.
  • During the seminar “Swavlamban 2.0,” 76 challenges for the industry were launched.
  • These challenges are part of the “10th Defence India Start-up Challenges (DISC-10)” and “DISC 10 PRIME of Innovations for Defence Excellence (iDEX).”
  • Two INDUS X challenges were launched jointly with the U.S. Department of Defence under “INDUS-X Mutual Promotion of Advanced Collaborative Technologies” (IMPACT).
  • The items on the indigenisation list include infantry combat vehicles, unmanned aerial vehicles, precision kill systems, radars, and more.
  • The Navy sought solutions to 75 challenges last year and concluded over 100 technological developmental agreements.

Govt. eases aircraft recovery rules: Page 16

  • Government notification excludes aircraft, helicopters, and engines from protection under the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code 2016.
  • Go First’s insolvency resolution proceedings were granted a blanket moratorium in May, protecting it from lessors and creditors.
  • Lessors of nearly all of Go First’s 54 aircraft had sought de-registration over pending dues.
  • The DGCA is legally examining the government notification before deciding on de-registration.
  • Lessors had approached the Delhi High Court, arguing that the moratorium was against the Cape Town Convention and Protocol of 2001, which allows lessors to terminate agreements and take possession in case of default.
  • The new notification requires lessors to move to NCLT or other courts to seek de-registration and export of their aircraft.
  • The Aviation Working Group assigned India a negative outlook due to the Go First matter, which may lead to higher premiums for Indian airlines leasing aircraft.

‘Green shipping plan to position maritime sector as eco-friendly’: Page 16

  • National action plan for green shipping aims to promote eco-friendly practices and incentivize low emission ships.
  • Director General of Shipping, Shyam Jagannathan, believes this plan will position India’s maritime sector as environmentally responsible.
  • India’s maritime sector is envisioned to play a pivotal role in achieving a $20 trillion economy by 2047, with a projected growth rate of 9%.
  • The sector’s vision includes quadrupling port capacity, establishing clean energy fuel hubs, fostering cruise tourism growth, leadership in shipbuilding and recycling, and creating a 5,000 km regional waterway grid.

BlueWalker 3 satellite outshines most stars: SCIENCE Page II

  • BlueWalker 3 is a prototype satellite belonging to AST SpaceMobile.
  • It is part of a satellite constellation aimed at providing global mobile and broadband services.
  • BlueWalker 3 was observed to be one of the brightest objects in the night sky, potentially disrupting astronomy.
  • Astronomers are concerned about satellite constellations disrupting night sky observations.
  • Data from various locations worldwide was used to track BlueWalker 3’s trajectory.
  • Mitigating the satellite’s brightness is challenging and could lead to data loss in affected sky portions.
  • BlueWalker 3’s radio frequency emissions may interfere with radio astronomy.
  • Research is needed to protect telescopes from interference caused by upcoming satellite constellations.
  • Researchers acknowledge the importance of satellite constellations for global communications but emphasize the need to minimize their impact on astronomy.

Source: The Hindu Epaper

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