The Hindu PDF 03 May 2023 Analysis

The Hindu PDF Newspaper is considered an important source of news and information for UPSC (Union Public Service Commission) aspirants in India. This The Hindu PDF newspaper covers a wide range of topics that are relevant to the UPSC exam, including politics, economics, international relations, governance, and social issues.

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The Hindu PDF Newspaper Analysis Today

The LAC crisis and the danger of losing without fighting: Page 8

  • Climate change is a significant challenge facing the world, and India is particularly vulnerable to its effects.
  • The Paris Agreement is a global agreement aimed at addressing climate change, and India is a signatory to it.
  • India has committed to reducing its greenhouse gas emissions intensity by 33-35% by 2030, compared to 2005 levels.
  • To achieve its climate change goals, India is investing in renewable energy and energy efficiency measures.
  • Climate change is likely to have significant impacts on agriculture, water resources, and public health in India.
  • India’s efforts to address climate change will require collaboration between the central government, state governments, and other stakeholders.

Outlawing India’s tech tariffs: Page 9

  • The World Trade Organization (WTO) dispute settlement panels have found India’s tariffs on certain information and communication technology (ICT) products inconsistent with India’s WTO obligations.
  • India has violated Article II of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) because India’s tariffs breach its Goods Schedule.
  • One of the central objectives of the WTO is to boost transparency and predictability in the multilateral trading order.
  • The Goods Schedules are based on the World Customs Organization’s classification system, which catalogues traded products with specific names and numbers.
  • The ITA Agreement is an arrangement through which select WTO member countries agree to eliminate duties on IT products.
  • India’s Goods Schedule, not the ITA, is the source of India’s legal obligations on tariffs, including on products covered by the ITA.
  • The panels have recommended that India reduce its tariff rates and make them compatible with its Goods Schedule, but it is unlikely that India will comply.
  • Compliance would mean dismantling the high protective tariff wall that India has erected hoping it will boost domestic manufacturing of ICT products.
  • India is likely to appeal against the panel ruling, relying on Article 17 of the WTO’s Dispute Settlement Understanding (DSU).
  • The Appellate Body that hears appeals has ceased to exist since 2019 because the United States has been blocking the appointment of the body’s members.
  • Legally, India will not be required to comply with the panel rulings till the time its appeal is heard.
  • The EU has developed a legal mechanism according to which if a country files an appeal against a panel under Article 17 of the DSU into the void, and refuses to use the Multi-Party Interim Appeal Arbitration Arrangement (MPIA) to resolve the dispute, the EU can unilaterally impose trade sanctions against the losing country.
  • The EU might use this ruling as a bargaining chip in the ongoing free trade agreement negotiations with India.

Why are Blinkit workers protesting?: Page 10

  • Gig workers are workers who perform work or participate in a work arrangement and earn from such activities outside of a traditional employer-employee relationship.
  • There are two types of gig workers: platform workers and non-platform workers.
  • Platform workers use online algorithmic matching platforms or apps to connect with customers, while non-platform workers work outside of these platforms.
  • Gig workers have limited recognition under current employment laws in India and fall outside the ambit of statutory benefits.
  • The Ministry of Labour and Employment introduced the Code on Social Security, 2020 to bring gig workers within the ambit of labour laws for the first time.
  • The Code recognises gig workers, but distinguishes between them and employees.
  • While employees have benefits such as gratuity, employee compensation, insurance, provident fund, and maternity benefits, the Code stipulates that Central and State governments must frame suitable social security schemes for gig workers on matters relating to health and maternity benefits, provident funds, and accident benefits, among others.
  • The Code mandates the compulsory registration of all gig workers and platform workers to avail of the benefits under these schemes.
  • Gig workers remain excluded from vital benefits and protections offered by other Codes such as minimum wage, occupational safety, etc.
  • They also cannot create legally recognised unions and do not have the right to collective bargaining.
  • A 2022 report by Fairwork India highlighted the deplorable working conditions of the employees of digital labour platforms in India and the need for statutory affirmation of the rights of gig workers.
  • The Labour Codes have received the assent of the President, but are still awaiting implementation due to the delay in framing of rules by the States.
  • On September 20, 2021, the Indian Federation of App-based Transport Workers (IFAT) filed a public interest litigation on behalf of gig workers before the Supreme Court demanding statutory protection in the form of social security benefits.
  • Although the Supreme Court sought the Centre’s response to this petition back in December 2021, the Centre has not yet responded.

The Golden Globe Race: the voyage of mad men: Page 10

  • Abhilash Tomy, a former Commander in the Indian Navy, has achieved a remarkable feat by completing a solo circumnavigation under grueling circumstances in the Golden Globe Race (GGR) 2022, finishing second after South African Kirsten Neuschäfer.
  • The Golden Globe Race is a non-stop, solo, unassisted yacht race around the world, held for the first time in 1968-69.
  • Tomy participated in the race in 2018 but had to quit after his boat got dismasted in a storm in the Southern Indian Ocean, causing him a spinal injury.
  • He returned to GGR in 2022, facing many challenges, including a collision with a ship that required massive repairs just weeks before the race.
  • Only three of the 11 contestants in GGR 2022 completed the course, making Tomy’s feat even more remarkable.
  • Tomy’s boat was the most ‘repaired’ boat in the race, with him doing all the repairs himself in unimaginable sea conditions and lack of sleep.
  • Tomy’s messages relayed by the GGR organizer on social media were testimony to the sailor’s wry wit even in the face of odds.
  • Tomy became the first Asian to complete the 30,000-mile GGR, and his achievement reflects his exemplary skills, perseverance, and determination.

De-dollarisation: the race to attain the status of global reserve currency: Page 11

  • De-dollarisation refers to the replacement of the U.S. dollar by other currencies as the global reserve currency.
  • The U.S. dollar is currently the dominant global reserve currency due to its popularity among investors and the use of American banks to clear international transactions carried out in the dollar.
  • Attempts to de-dollarise have picked up pace in the aftermath of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, which resulted in sanctions that restricted the use of the U.S. dollar to purchase goods from Russia.
  • Critics of the U.S. dollar believe that its global reserve currency status gives it unfair privileges over other countries.
  • The economic clout of countries is usually linked to the use of their currency as a global reserve currency, as seen with the British pound and the French franc.
  • The U.S. Federal Reserve’s expansionary monetary policy has led to concerns about the dollar’s status as a reserve currency, but other countries have also been debasing their currencies.
  • The U.S. dollar’s popularity as a global reserve currency is due to the popularity of U.S. assets among investors, but other countries have struggled to make their currencies a viable alternative due to restrictions on foreign access and doubts over the rule of law.

Centre plans panel to find alternative to death by hanging: Page 12

  • The government is considering forming a committee to examine alternative methods of execution other than death by hanging.
  • The Supreme Court had asked for data on a more acceptable method of executing prisoners in March.
  • The Chief Justice had suggested the formation of a committee with experts from law universities, professors of law, doctors, and scientific persons.
  • The court may direct an alternative method of executing capital punishments if a more “humane” method is found.
  • The petition filed by advocate Rishi Malhotra challenging the constitutionality of death by hanging as a mode of execution.
  • Section 354 (5) of the Code of Criminal Procedure mandates that a person sentenced to death shall “be hanged by the neck till he is dead”.
  • The UPSC aspirants should be aware of the ongoing debate around the constitutionality of death by hanging and the potential alternatives being considered.

Rajnath Singh hands over two naval vessels to the Maldivian defence forces: Page 12

  • India’s Defence Minister Rajnath Singh handed over a Fast Patrol Vessel and a Landing Craft Assault ship to the Maldives National Defence Forces (MNDF) as part of India’s capacity building assistance in the Indian Ocean Region (IOR).
  • Indian Air Force (IAF) chief Air Chief Marshal V.R. Chaudhari donated AN-32 transport aircraft propellers to Commander Sri Lanka Air Force in Sri Lanka.
  • India has emerged as a leading defence exporter in recent years and has significantly scaled up assistance towards capacity building and capability enhancement for Indian Ocean littoral states and countries in the IOR.
  • The Defence Minister called for collaborative efforts to deal with common challenges faced by IOR, including climate change and sustainable exploitation of maritime resources.
  • The Defence Minister held talks with his Maldivian counterpart Mariya Ahmed Didi and Foreign Minister Abdulla Shahid.

China, Russia, Pak. Ministers to attend SCO meet in Goa: Page 13

  • India is hosting the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) Foreign Ministers’ meeting in Goa on Thursday and Friday, where the foreign ministers of China and Russia will be attending.
  • The SCO meeting is expected to lay the groundwork for Presidents Xi Jinping and Vladimir Putin to travel to India in early July.
  • The Indian External Affairs Minister (EAM) S. Jaishankar is expected to interact with Pakistan Foreign Minister Bilawal Bhutto, who is also attending the meeting. This is the first visit by a Pakistani Foreign Minister to India since 2011, though officials have said the purpose of the visit is to attend the multilateral meeting of the SCO, and neither side has indicated they will hold bilateral talks.
  • The SCO grouping includes four Central Asian nations, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, while India and Pakistan were added to the group in 2017. Iran and Belarus are slated to be the next additions.

Bangladesh seeks India’s help over Rohingya: Page 15

  • Bangladesh President Mohammed Shahabuddin has urged India to take more effective steps to persuade Myanmar to take back the Rohingya refugees who fled to Bangladesh to escape persecution in their country.
  • The President made this request during a meeting with Indian High Commissioner to Bangladesh, Pranay Kumar Verma.
  • The President stated that Bangladesh has sheltered the Rohingya refugees for humanitarian reasons, but their prolonged stay is causing problems not only for Bangladesh but also for the entire region, including escalating security risks such as terrorism.

Gaming policy, tax norms need more calibration: FM: Page 16

  • The government is considering the appropriate taxation and regulatory regime for the gaming industry, which still lacks a coherent policy.
  • The GST Council is looking into the matter, and a group of ministers has been appointed to assess the employment potential and consumption of gaming.
  • The government is discussing the taxing and regulation aspect of the gaming industry, and more calibration is required.
  • Once the policy certainty arrives and taxation becomes more transparent, it could attract investors, including from Korea and Japan.

Source: The Hindu Epaper

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