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The Hindu PDF 02 May 2023 Analysis

The Hindu PDF GKGSCA

The Hindu PDF Newspaper is considered an important source of news and information for UPSC (Union Public Service Commission) aspirants in India. This The Hindu PDF newspaper covers a wide range of topics that are relevant to the UPSC exam, including politics, economics, international relations, governance, and social issues.

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SC says it can end wait for consensual divorce: Page I

  • The Supreme Court can use Article 142 of the Constitution to grant divorce by mutual consent to couples trapped in bitter marriages, sparing them the “misery” of waiting for six to 18 months for a local court to declare the annulment final.
  • The Supreme Court can also use Article 142 to quash pending criminal or legal proceedings, including those related to domestic violence or dowry, against the man or woman, and help them start afresh their separate lives.
  • The entire law of divorce was built predominantly on “assigning fault” on one or the other partner, which fails to serve broken marriages.
  • The Supreme Court can grant divorce on the ground of “irretrievable breakdown of marriage” if the “separation is inevitable and the damage is irreparable,” even if it is not yet a ground for divorce under the Hindu Marriage Act.
  • Grant of divorce by the Supreme Court on the ground of irretrievable breakdown of marriage is “not a matter of right, but a discretion which is to be exercised with great care and caution.”
  • The Supreme Court can use Article 142 to deal with certain cases which come to it by way of transfer petitions or appeals in civil or criminal matrimonial disputes.
  • Several factors would be considered by the Supreme Court before invoking Article 142 in matrimonial cases, including the duration of the marriage, period of litigation, the time they have stayed apart, the nature of the pending cases between the couples, the number of attempts at reconciliation, and the court’s satisfaction that the mutual agreement to divorce was not under coercion.
  • The cooling-off period of six to 18 months under Section 13-B of the Hindu Marriage Act is meant as time for couples to introspect, but in cases in which divorce is inevitable and the marriage is beyond salvage, a long wait would only “breed misery and pain, without any gain and benefit.”
  • The Supreme Court, in view of the settlement between the parties, has the discretion to dissolve the marriage by passing a decree of divorce by mutual consent, without being bound by the procedural requirement to move the second motion.

China’s amended anti-espionage law: Page 8

  • India’s demographic dividend is expected to provide a favorable environment for economic growth, but it can only be realized if the country invests in its young population’s education and skills development.
  • The Indian education system faces several challenges, including a lack of quality teachers, inadequate infrastructure, and a mismatch between what is taught in schools and what employers need.
  • The National Education Policy 2020 aims to address some of these challenges by introducing several reforms, including changes in curriculum and assessment methods, and by increasing funding for education.
  • The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on the education sector in India, with schools and colleges being closed for an extended period and a shift to online learning.
  • The pandemic has highlighted existing inequalities in the education system, with students from disadvantaged backgrounds being disproportionately affected.
  • The digital divide is a significant barrier to online learning, with many students lacking access to devices and internet connectivity.
  • The government has introduced several measures to address the challenges posed by the pandemic, including the launch of online learning platforms and the provision of digital devices to students.
  • To address the issues in the Indian education system, there is a need for comprehensive and sustained reforms, including improving teacher training and accountability, investing in infrastructure and technology, and addressing the issue of inequality.

The ever expanding medicinal uses and properties of psychedelic substances: Page 9

  • Psychedelics are a group of drugs that alter perception, mood, and thought-processing while a person is still clearly conscious. They are non-addictive, non-toxic, and less harmful than many illicit drugs.
  • Humans have used psilocybin and mescaline for ceremonies, healing, and spiritual rituals for millennia. The modern-day use of psychedelics is commonly associated with the German chemist Arthur Heffter isolating mescaline from the peyote cactus in 1897, and the Swiss chemist Albert Hofmann first synthesising LSD in 1938.
  • Between 1947 and 1967, LSD was widely used as a therapeutic catalyst in psychotherapy. However, the increasing recreational use of these substances, medical concerns, and the Vietnam War prompted the conservative Richard Nixon administration to criminalise the use of psychedelics and other psychoactive drugs.
  • Psychedelic substances boost brain serotonin levels and increase the cross-talk between different brain networks, which correlates with the subjective effects of psychedelics. There is no evidence that psychedelics cause physiological or psychological dependence.
  • Synthetic psychedelics have been associated with acute cardiac, central nervous system, and limb ischaemia, as well as serotonin syndrome. People with a personal or family history of psychosis are strongly discouraged from experimenting with psychedelics.
  • The psychological effects of psychedelics depend on the interaction between the drug and the user’s mindset (together called a set), and the environmental setting. Brief and self-limiting psychotic episodes can occur when a user is intoxicated with psychedelics, particularly LSD.
  • Recent studies suggest that psychedelics may be useful for treating neuropsychiatric disorders such as treatment-resistant depression, anxiety, and PTSD. In November 2022, the results from a phase II psilocybin trial were published in the New England Journal of Medicine. The trial found that a single 25-mg dose of psilocybin reduced depression scores over three weeks in people with treatment-resistant depression. Adverse events included headache, nausea, and dizziness which occurred in 77% of the participants.

India leads in ‘laundering’ Russian oil and selling to Europe: report: Page 11

  • India is one of the five countries named as “Laundromat” countries that buy Russian oil and sell processed products to European countries, thus side-stepping European sanctions against Russia.
  • The Centre for Research on Energy and Clean Air (CREA) has released a report titled “Laundromat: How the price cap coalition whitewashes Russian oil in third countries,” which points out that the Price Cap Coalition countries have increased imports of refined oil products from countries that are importing Russian crude, and this is a significant loophole that can undermine the impact of sanctions on Russia.
  • Indian sellers and European buyers are accused of possibly circumventing sanctions by selling crude products from a refinery in Gujarat that is co-owned by Russian oil company Rosneft.
  • European countries are substituting oil products they previously bought directly from Russia with the same products now “whitewashed” in third countries and bought from them at a premium.
  • India is ahead of all other “Laundromat” countries in the export of crude products to Price Cap Coalition countries, which include the EU, G-7 countries, Australia, and Japan.
  • The CREA report points out that most oil products are being exported from two ports in Gujarat: the Sikka port that services the Reliance-owned Jamnagar refinery and the Vadinar port that ships oil products from Nayara energies, which is partly owned (49.13%) by Rosneft, and alleges that this could constitute “circumventing sanctions” imposed unilaterally by the U.S. and Europe.
  • The report concludes that a “place of origin” certification should accompany oil products sold to Europe.
  • The Petroleum Ministry and the External Affairs Ministry have not responded to a request for a comment on the report or the categorization of India as an “oil launderer” for Russia.

Inaugural ASEAN-lndia maritime exercise in South China Sea from today: Page 12

  • The ASEAN-India Maritime Exercise (AIME) is set to begin on May 2, with war games in the South China Sea. This exercise is a part of expanding India-ASEAN military cooperation.
  • The Navy chief, Admiral R. Hari Kumar, is in Singapore to participate in the exercise, along with attending the International Maritime Defence Exhibition (IMDEX-23) and International Maritime Security Conference (IMSC) hosted by Singapore.
  • The inaugural AIME-2023 is scheduled to take place from May 2-8, and it will provide an opportunity for the Indian Navy and ASEAN navies to conduct seamless operations in the maritime domain.
  • The ‘Harbour Phase’ of the exercise is scheduled to be held at Changi Naval Base from May 2 to 4, and the ‘Sea Phase’ from May 7 to 8 in the South China Sea.
  • Defence Minister Rajnath Singh is on a three-day visit to the Maldives, the first by an Indian Defence Minister to the Maldives in 11 years, to address shared challenges, including maritime security, terrorism, radicalisation, organised crime and natural disasters.
  • The Air Force chief, Air Chief Marshal V.R. Chaudhari, is also on a four-day visit to Sri Lanka.

Uzbekistan President wins referendum to rewrite the Constitution: Page 13

  • President Shavkat Mirziyoyev’s bid to rewrite Uzbekistan’s Constitution has received overwhelming support from voters in a recent referendum. The proposed changes promise more freedoms to the people of the country and could also see the President extending his rule beyond his current two-term limit.
  • The preliminary results of the referendum show that 90.21% of voters supported the changes, while 9.35% voted ‘No’. The turnout was 84.54%.
  • Observers from the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) have raised doubts on the fairness of the referendum process, noting that the voting was not truly representative.
  • The new Constitution promises more media freedoms and greater emphasis on human rights, freedoms, gender equality, economic growth, and prosperity.
  • The new charter would extend the presidential term to seven years, with a two-term limit. President Mirziyoyev, who is currently serving his second term, would be able to contest for two more terms (14 years in total) if the new Constitution is implemented.
  • Many Uzbeks, especially women and youth, see the promised changes as a welcome move in a fast-changing country, despite concerns about the President extending his rule.
  • While some experts are positive about the development, they remain sceptical about the implementation of the proposed changes, particularly with regards to media freedoms.
  • The article was written by a journalist who was invited to Uzbekistan by the government.

Trade pact lifts India’s FY 23 exports to UAE to $31.3 bn: Page 14

  • The bilateral trade pact (CEPA) between India and UAE, implemented in May 2022, has resulted in a 12% growth in India’s exports to the UAE, reaching $31.3 billion, more than double the overall growth in India’s exports.
  • Bilateral trade between India and UAE increased from $67.5 billion to $76.9 billion during the CEPA implementation period, marking a 14% annual increase.
  • India’s automotive exports to the UAE increased by 42%, while imports of aircraft parts from the Emirates increased from $39 million to almost $2 billion last fiscal.
  • India’s imports from the UAE grew by 18.8% to $53.2 billion in 2022-23, faster than the overall increase in its import bill.
  • The CEPA has already surpassed all free trade pacts entered into by India, barring the one with ASEAN, in terms of utilization.
  • Under the CEPA, the UAE eliminated duties on 97.4% of its tariff lines on goods corresponding to 99% of imports from India, and India has obtained immediate duty elimination on more than 80% of its tariff lines corresponding to 90% of India’s exports in value terms.

Source: The Hindu Epaper

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